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Arceo S.D.,Laboratorio Of Genetica | Martinez-Tabche L.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Alvarez-Gonzalez I.,Laboratorio Of Genetica | Lopez E.L.,Laboratorio Of Bioconservacion Y Manejo | Madrigal-Bujaidar E.,Laboratorio Of Genetica
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2015

The toxicity induced by insecticides in aquatic organisms is of utmost relevance because it may give a clue about the degree of health or damage of the involved ecosystem. In the present report, we determined the effect of dieldrin (DD) and chlorpyrifos (CP) on the freshwater crayfish, Cambarellus montezumae. The organisms (4-6cm in diameter) were collected in the Ignacio Ramírez Reservoir, situated at 50km Northeast of Mexico City, in the Rio Lerma Basin. Initially, we determined the LC50 value with the Probit method, then the DNA damage with single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay applied at 24, 48, and 72h of exposure) to the brain and hepatopancreas of animals exposed (in reconstituted water) to 0.05 and 0.5mg/L of each insecticide. In the hepatopancreas of the same organisms, we determined the lipid peroxidation by applying the TBARS test. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation were also evaluated with the same methods to organisms exposed in water from the reservoir. In regard to the LC50, at 72h of exposure, we found a value of 5.1mg/L and a value of 5.62mg/L for DD and CP, respectively. The comet assay applied at different exposure times showed significant DNA damage to both organs, with respect to the control level. In the case of DD, statistical significance was observed for the two doses in the whole evaluated schedule. CP was genotoxic in the brain with the high dose at 72h, and in the hepatopancreas with the two tested doses at all evaluated exposure times. Also, a significant lipid peroxidation increase was detected with the two doses of insecticides. In the study with water from the reservoir, a more pronounced DNA damage was detected. Our results showed strong DNA damage induced by both insecticides in the crayfish, as well as a correlation with the lipid peroxidation effect, suggesting that oxida-tive stress is involved in the genotoxic alteration. Our results also showed the usefulness of the studied organism as well as the applied tests for the evaluation of toxicological effects, and suggested the pertinence of applying the comet assay to other freshwater organisms to evaluate the bioaccumulation of insecticides. © 2015, Universidad de Costa Rica. All Rights Reserved. Source

Garcia-Medina S.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Razo-Estrada C.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Galar-Martinez M.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Cortez-Barberena E.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | And 3 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Few studies have been made in regard to the effect of aluminum on the molecular and cellular structure and function of aquatic organisms; therefore, in the present report we determined the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by the metal on the lymphocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three groups of fish were exposed to 0.05, 120, and 239 mg/L of aluminum (Al), respectively, by using Al2 (SO4)3•7H2O, and another group was included as control. The cells obtained were studied with the comet assay, flow cytometry, and the TUNEL method. With the first method we found a concentration and time dependent, significant increase in the amount of DNA damage induced by Al, and a higher damage when we evaluated the level of oxidized DNA. By applying flow cytometry we established that the metal induced a DNA content increase and ploidy modifications as well as apoptosis and disturbances of the cell cycle progression. With the last method we determined a significant increase in the amount of apoptotic cells, mainly in the 72-96 h period. Our results established that Al caused deleterious DNA and cellular effects in the tested organism, and they suggested the pertinence of evaluating toxicity induced by the metal in organisms living in contaminated water bodies. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gomez-Olivan L.M.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Ambiental | Gomez-Olivan L.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Neri-Cruz N.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Ambiental | Galar-Martinez M.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | And 5 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2012

Paracetamol is an antipyretic analgesic widely used globally. It has been recurrently found in water bodies and is known to elicit toxic effects in aquatic species; however, its potential ability to induce oxidative stress in sentinel species remains unknown The objective was to establish a methodology to evaluate the toxicity elicited on the sentinel species Hyalella azteca by paracetamol-enriched sediment using oxidative stress tests. Concentrations used in assays were determined using the previously obtained median lethal concentration (72 h LC 50). The following oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC) in order to determine oxidized protein content, and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). LPO and PCC increased significantly while SOD, CAT, and GPX decreased significantly (p<0.05) with respect to controls. Paracetamol induces oxidative stress on H. azteca, and the set of tests employed is helpful in evaluating the toxicity of this group of pharmaceuticals on aquatic species. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source

Oviedo-Gomez D.G.C.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia | Galar-Martinez M.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Garcia-Medina S.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Razo-Estrada C.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Gomez-Olivan L.M.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in Mexico where it is sold over the counter. It enters water bodies through municipal and industrial discharges, posing a risk to water systems and aquatic organisms. Diclofenac-enriched artificial sediment was used to evaluate the toxicity of this pharmaceutical on the sentinel species Hyalella azteca, using oxidative stress biomarkers in order to determine if the set of tests used in this study is a suitable early damage biomarker. The median lethal concentration (72-h LC50) was determined and oxidative stress was evaluated using lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content to evaluate oxidized protein content, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. All biomarkers were significantly altered. Diclofenac induces oxidative stress in H. azteca and the set of tests used (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, antioxidant enzyme activities) constitutes an adequate early damage biomarker for evaluating the toxicity of this pharmaceutical group in aquatic species. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Galar-Martinez M.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Gomez-Olivan L.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Amaya-Chavez A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Razo-Estrada C.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica | Garcia-Medina S.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Acuatica
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010

Madín Reservoir (MR), located in the State of Mexico, is fed mainly by the Río Tlalnepantla. MR supplies potable water to the municipalities of Naucalpan and Atizapán, and various recreational activities take place in its vicinity, such as sailing and the fishing of diverse species including the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxic effects of contaminants present in MR water and sediment on C. carpio. Five sampling stations were selected (those considered to have the most problems due to discharges). Water and sediment samples were taken and toxicity studies were performed, including acute toxicity (lethality) and subacute toxicity assays. The biomarkers used in the subacute assays were lipid peroxidation (LPX) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver and brain of test organisms. These biomarkers were also evaluated in local carp, i.e. carp with chronic exposure in situ to reservoir contaminants. Results show that contaminants in the water and sediment of the different sampling stations induce oxidative stress, this toxicity being more evident in samples from stations near the entry point of the Río Tlalnepantla tributary and in local carp. This may be due to high contaminant levels as well as the fact that the physicochemical characteristics of the matrices might favor their bioavailability. Thus, both the water and sediment of this reservoir are contaminated with xenobiotics hazardous to C. carpio, a species consumed by the local human population. Source

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