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Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Llop S.,Jaume I University | Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Lopez-Espinosa M.-J.,Jaume I University | Lopez-Espinosa M.-J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 21 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1. μU/L, 2.4. nmol/L, 10.5. pmol/L and 7.7. μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (. β: -0.05; 95%CI: -0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (-0.08; 95%CI: -0.15, -0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Llop S.,Centro Superior Of Investigacion En Salud Publica Csisp | Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Porta M.,CIBER ISCIII | Porta M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | And 19 more authors.
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2013

Objective: To describe the time trend in atmospheric lead concentrations in Spain, from before lead was banned as a gasoline additive to the present, and to determine the trend in lead body burden in the Spanish child population. Methods: We obtained the annual average for atmospheric lead levels in several Spanish cities from the 1980s to the present. A literature search was conducted to identify published studies on lead concentrations in populations of Spanish children. Results: Overall, atmospheric lead levels decreased, particularly between 1991 and 1999. This downward trend was related to a decrease in lead concentrations in Spanish children from 1989, the year in which the first study of childhood lead exposure was published, until the present. The decreased concentrations in both air and in children was most probably a result of legislative measures regulating the maximum amount of lead in gasoline in 1987 until a complete ban in August 2001. Conclusions: From a public health point of view, the banning of leaded gasoline has significantly increased health protection in the Spanish population. © 2011 SESPAS.

Ramon R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Ramon R.,CIBER ISCIII | Murcia M.,CIBER ISCIII | Murcia M.,Center for Public Health Research | And 24 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2011

Background: Mercury is a ubiquitous heavy metal that may negatively affect human health. It is desirable to investigate mercury exposure in vulnerable populations. Objective: To determine the concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) in cord blood and to evaluate the role of maternal fish consumption in a Spanish mother and child cohort. Methods: A total of 1883 mother and child pairs from a population-based cohort were included between 2004 and 2008. T-Hg concentrations were measured in whole cord blood and maternal seafood consumption was ascertained by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. Linear regression was used in stratified analyses, while a joint model was adjusted using a mixed-effects linear model. Results: Maternal daily seafood consumption was 78. g/d and the geometric mean for T-Hg was 8.2 μg/L. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, mother's age, country of origin, educational level, employment status and parity, as well as area of study and season of delivery, were associated with cord blood T-Hg levels. A doubling in consumption of large oily fish was associated with an increase of 11.4% (95%CI: 3.8 to 19.6%) in cord blood T-Hg levels, followed by an increase of 8.4% (95%CI: 5.7 to 11.2%) in the case of canned tuna and 8.3% (95%CI: 5.5 to 11.1%) in that of lean fish. Conclusion: A high proportion of newborns had elevated concentrations of cord blood T-Hg according to the current US-EPA reference dose (5.8 μg/L for methylmercury). Mercury concentrations were related to maternal fish consumption, with large oily fish being the main contributor. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Llop S.,Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Murcia M.,Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Murcia M.,CIBER ISCIII | And 16 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008-2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10. μg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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