Laboratorio Of Salud Publica

Barranquilla, Colombia

Laboratorio Of Salud Publica

Barranquilla, Colombia
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Context: The bioburden present on the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory's surfaces, may increase the risk of cross-contamination when analytical tests are being carried out; periodic monitoring allows to set limits that reduce the risk. Aims: To determinate the limits of bioburden present on seven surfaces of the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory, after the cleaning and disinfection process. Methods: The swabbing method was used for sampling. With a 25 cm2 stencil and a sterile swab, a sample was taken, passing the swab over five points of every surface chosen. A total aerobic microbial count and a total yeast and mold count was done. Finally, the average and the standard deviation of the counts was obtained. Results: The average from the counts obtained on each surface selected for the study, were below the recommended limits by international entities like the World Health Organization and the European Union, between others; also, the results generated in this study, allow to classify the biosafety cabinet as an ISO 5 area and the other areas as ISO 7. Conclusions: Bioburden levels on the tested surfaces are considered low, reducing the risk of cross-contamination, which could have a negative impact on laboratory's activities. Also, it follows that disinfectant concentration used, is effectively. © 2016 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research.

Carbajal-De-La-Fuente A.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Lencina P.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Spillmann C.,Ministerio de la Salud | Gurtler R.E.,University of Buenos Aires
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2017

Residual insecticide spraying still is the main tool used to suppress house infestations with Chagas disease vectors. While manual compression sprayers (MCS) have traditionally been used in Latin America, Mendoza’s vector control program from Argentina introduced the use of a modified motorized vehicle-mounted sprayer (VMS) with apparent advantages over MCS. We conducted a randomized intervention trial to evaluate the effectiveness and selected components of the performance of MCS and VMS. We assessed house infestation by Triatoma infestans in 76 previously-infested houses at 0, 1, 4 and 12 months postintervention. Infestations were reduced substantially, with no significant differences between treatments. End-point infestations were restricted to peridomiciles. Although VMS required less time to complete the house spraying than MCS, both treatments had similar performance and did not suppress infestations completely. The main relative advantages of VMS were a reduced physical effort, especially under harsh field conditions, and potential gains in spray coverage per unit of time. © 2017, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

Garcia V.,University of Oviedo | Montero I.,University of Oviedo | Bances M.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Rodicio R.,University of Oviedo | Rosario Rodicio M.,University of Oviedo
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2017

In this study, the incidence and genetic bases of nitrofurantoin resistance were established for clinical isolates of two successful clones of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the pandemic DT 104 and the pUO-StVR2 clone. A total of 61 DT 104 and 40 pUO-StVR2 isolates recovered from clinical samples during 2008-2014 and assigned to different phage types, were tested for nitrofurantoin susceptibility. As previously shown for older isolates, all newly tested pUO-StVR2 isolates were highly resistant to nitrofurantoin (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] of 128 μg/ml), while 42.6%, 24.6%, and 32.8% of the DT 104 isolates were susceptible, showed intermediate resistance or were highly resistant, with MICs of 8, 64, and 128 μg/ml, respectively. The genetic bases of nitrofurantoin resistance were established by PCR amplification and sequencing of the nfsA and nfsB genes encoding oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases. pUO-StVR2 isolates shared identical alterations in both nfsA (IS1 inserted into the coding region) and nfsB (in frame duplication of two codons). DT 104 isolates with intermediate or high resistance had a missense mutation affecting the start codon of nfsA, while a single resistant isolate carried an additional frameshift mutation affecting nfsB. Complementation studies, performed with wild-type nfsA and nfsB, cloned independently and together into low and high copy-number vectors, confirmed NfsA and NfsB as responsible for nitrofurantoin toxicity. The same alterations persisted along time in isolates of each clone belonging to different phage types. Accordingly, changes leading to nitrofurantoin resistance have probably occurred before phage type diversification. © 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Gutierrez L.A.,University of Antioquia | Gomez G.F.,University of Antioquia | Gonzalez J.J.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Castro M.I.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Gonzalez-Parra G.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Arenas A.J.,University of Córdoba, Colombia | Aranda D.F.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Segovia L.,Coordinacion de Epidemiologia de la Corporacion de Salud
Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology | Year: 2011

The 2009 swine flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus and there are more than 14,000 confirmed deaths worldwide. The aim of this paper is to propose new mathematical models to study different dynamics of H1N1 influenza virus spread in selected regions around the world. Spatial and temporal elements are included in these models to reproduce the dynamics of AH1N1/09 virus. Different models are used since H1N1 influenza virus spread in regions with different contact structures are not the same. We rely on time series notifications of individuals to estimate some of the parameters of the models. We find that, in order to reproduce the time series data and the spread of the disease, it is convenient to suggest spatio-temporal models. Regions with only one wave are modeled with the classical SEIR model and regions with multiple waves using models with spatio-temporal elements. These results help to explain and understand about potential mechanisms behind the spread of AH1N1 influenza virus in different regions around the world. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Maestre-Serrano R.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Maestre-Serrano R.,Simón Bolívar University of Colombia | Eyes-Escalante M.,University of the Atlantic
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental | Year: 2012

The department of Atlántico in Colombia is considered non-endemic for Chagas disease, however there are risk factors associated with the presence of vector species. According to the last record of distribution of triatomine species in Colombia, this department only reported the presence of Triatoma maculata. The objective of this article a is to update the presence and distribution of triatomine species in urban and rural areas in Atlántico-Colombia. A retrospective study was performed based on Atlántico's records of triatomines between the years 2003 to 2010. During the period studied the following species were recorded: Panstrongylus geniculatus in the municipalities of Piojó, Tubará, Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla, Soledad and Luruaco; Eratyrus cuspidatus in the municipalities of Piojó and Tubará and T. maculata in Puerto Colombia. These results broaden the distribution of triatomines in Atlántico department and Colombian Caribbean region.

Rojas L.J.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Jaramillo C.A.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Mojica M.F.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Escalante M.P.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Delgado P.,University of Los Andes, Colombia
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) cause a broad spectrum of diseases including acute respiratory infection (ARI), and are responsible for 5% of cases requiring hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Colombia; however, little is known about the circulating types, partly due to the lack of reliable typing tests. In order to evaluate a VA gene PCR-sequencing approach for identification of HAdV circulating types in a Colombian population, 52 nasopharyngeal aspirates/swabs from children with ARI were processed. After a BLAST analysis, matches with species B (41/48, 8542%), C (6/48, 125%), and D (1/48, 208%) were found; and at the type level, type 3 (22/48, 4583%) was the most frequent. This initial effort to expand our knowledge about the molecular epidemiology of HAdV circulating in Bogota, Colombia, showed that HAdV-B was the predominant circulating species in the study period and reports, for the first time in Colombia, the presence of HAdV-D in a respiratory sample. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.

Patino Reyes N.,National University of Colombia | Duarte Portocarrero E.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica
One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment | Year: 2014

In Bogota, Colombia, the District Department of Health ensures potable water consumption, and performs special tests for arsenic and mercury in rural aqueducts in the periphery of the city. These elements are important chemical parameters to monitor the quality of drinking water in the water supply network of the city. We analyzed 319 samples during the last half of 2010 and the first half of 2011 as a requirement of the Regulation 1575 of 2007. In the 99.38% of the samples, arsenic was no detectable, and the remaining 0.62% was below the reference value (0.01 mg L-1). Regarding to mercury, out of 319 water samples that were analyzed, in 274 (85%) the element was not detectable, and in 45 (15%) results were close to the reference value. In conclusion, the water samples analyzed for mercury and arsenic in 2010 and 2011 yielded no detectable levels that may affect the health of the population in Bogotá. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group.

Argudin M.A.,University of Oviedo | Mendoza M.C.,University of Oviedo | Gonzalez-Hevia M.A.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Bances M.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases, results from ingestion of one or more staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In the present study, 64 S. aureus isolates recovered from foods and food handlers, associated or not associated with food-poisoning outbreaks in Spain, were investigated. They were assigned to 31 strains by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), exotoxin gene content, and antimicrobial resistance. The strains belonged to 10 clonal complexes (CCs): CC5 (29.0%), CC30 (25.8%), CC45 (16.1%), CC8, CC15 (two strains each), CC1, CC22, CC25, CC59, and CC121 (one strain each). They contained hemolysin genes (90.3%); lukED (77.4%); exfoliatin genes eta, etd (6.5% each), and etb (3.2%); tst (25.8%); and the following enterotoxin or enterotoxin-like genes or clusters: sea (38.7%), seb (12.9%), sec (16.1%), sed-selj with or without ser (22.9%), selk-selq (6.5%), seh, sell, selp (9.7% each), egc1 (32.3%), and egc2 (48.4%). The number of se and sel genes ranged from zero to 12. All isolates carrying tst, and most isolates with genes encoding classical enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), expressed the corresponding toxin(s). Two CC5 isolates from hamburgers (spa type t002, sequence type 5 [ST5]; spa type t2173, ST5) were methicillin resistant and harbored staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IVd. Six (19.4%) were mupirocin resistant, and one (spa type t120, ST15) from a food handler carried mupA (MIC, 1,250 μg/ml). Resistance to ampicillin (blaZ) (61.3%), erythromycin (ermA-ermC or ermC) (25.8%), clindamycin (msrAmsrB or msrB) (16.1%), tetracycline (tetK) (3.2%), and amikacin-gentamicin-kanamycin-tobramycin (aphA with aacA plus aphD or aadD) (6.5%) was also observed. The presence of S. aureus strains with an important repertoire of virulence and resistance determinants in the food chain represents a potential health hazard for consumers and merits further observation. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Garcia P.,University of Oviedo | Guerra B.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Bances M.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica | Mendoza M.C.,University of Oviedo | Rodicio M.R.,University of Oviedo
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Objectives: To broaden knowledge of the molecular bases and genetics of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:- belonging to the Spanish clone. Methods: The relatedness of the isolates was determined by phage typing and XbaI-PFGE. Resistance genes, integrons and transposable elements were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by alkaline lysis, S1-PFGE, conjugation, replicon typing and Southern blot hybridization. Results: The isolates were closely related and resistant to five to seven antimicrobials (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, streptomycin/spectinomycin, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and tetracycline, arranged in different combinations). Most of the responsible genes were provided by a conventional class 1 integron with the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 variable region, an atypical class 1 integron containing sul3 next to the estX-pspaadA2-cmlA1-aadA1 variable region and a truncated Tn1721 transposon carrying tet(A). A defective Tn21 with the mer operon and ISVsa3 associated with sul2 were also detected. All resistance genes and mobile genetic elements were located on large, non-conjugative and highly variable plasmids carrying one (A/C) or two (A/C and N) replicons, as well as virulence genes of pSLT. Conclusions: IncA/C plasmids are responsible for multidrug resistance in an increasing number of relevant human and animal bacterial pathogens, and hence are regarded as an important threat to public health. Those found in the Spanish clone of Salmonella 4,5,12:i:- constitute a relevant example of short-term evolution, and could have been involved in the successful adaptation of this pathogen. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

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