Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Bianucci R.,University of Turin | Bianucci R.,University of Oslo | Bianucci R.,Laboratoire dAnthropologie bio culturelle | Araujo A.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

The comprehensive analyses of human remains from various places and time periods, either by immunological or molecular approaches, provide circumstantial evidence that malaria tropica haunted humankind at least since dynastic ancient Egypt. Here we summarize the "actual state-of-the-art" of these bio-molecular investigations and offer a solid basis for the discussion of the paleopathology of malaria in human history. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

de Araujo A.P.O.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Telleria E.L.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Dutra J.M.F.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Dutra J.M.F.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | And 2 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2012

Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. When female sandflies feed on blood, a peritrophic matrix (PM) is formed around the blood bolus. The PM is secreted by midgut cells and composed of proteins, glycoproteins and chitin microfibrils. The PM functions as both a physical barrier against pathogens present in the food bolus and blood meal digestion regulator. Previous studies of mosquitoes and sandflies have shown that the absence of a PM, resulting from adding an exogenous chitinase to the blood meal, accelerates digestion. In the present study, we analysed biological factors associated with the presence of a PM in L. longipalpis females. Insects fed blood containing chitinase (BCC) accelerated egg-laying relative to a control group fed blood without chitinase. However, in the BCC-fed insects, the number of females that died without laying eggs was higher and the number of eggs laid per female was lower. The eggs in both groups were viable and generated adults. Based on these data, we suggest that the absence of a PM accelerates nutrient acquisition, which results in premature egg production and oviposition; however, the absence of a PM reduces the total number of eggs laid per female. Reduced fecundity in the absence of a PM may be due to inefficient nutrient conversion or the loss of the protective role of the PM.

Camacho M.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | Pessanha T.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | Leles D.,Federal University of Fluminense | Dutra J.M.F.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | And 3 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2013

Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

PubMed | University of Turin, University of Tübingen, Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia and Institute of Pathology
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2015

The comprehensive analyses of human remains from various places and time periods, either by immunological or molecular approaches, provide circumstantial evidence that malaria tropica haunted humankind at least since dynastic ancient Egypt. Here we summarize the actual state-of-the-art of these bio-molecular investigations and offer a solid basis for the discussion of the paleopathology of malaria in human history.

PubMed | CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, Laboratorio Of Imunodiagnostico, Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia and State University of Rio de Janeiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology international | Year: 2016

Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollena, Mallorca. The samples were subjected to microscopic examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This study provides new paleoparasitological data from an extinct animal species of the Holocene period. The microscopy revealed one sample containing uninucleated-cyst of Entamoeba sp., whereas ELISA detected nine positive samples for Cryptosporidium sp. The finding of these protozoans can help in the discussion of its extinction cause and demonstrates the antiquity and the evolutionary history of host-parasite relationships between protozoa and caprines since the Messinian.

PubMed | University of Nebraska - Lincoln and Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia
Type: Review | Journal: The Korean journal of parasitology | Year: 2016

Investigations of

PubMed | University of Nebraska - Lincoln and Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia
Type: | Journal: Advances in parasitology | Year: 2015

Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

Beltrame M.O.,University of the Sea | Beltrame M.O.,CONICET | De Souza M.V.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | Araujo A.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Rodents (Mammalia, Rodentia) are a key mammalian group with a worldwide distribution. The relevance of rodents as hosts in parasitic life-cycles, also in those of zoonotic impact, has been fully recognized. Parasites have been found in ancient remains throughout the world. Paleoparasitology is the study of ancient parasites recovered from archaeological and paleontological sites and materials. This paper reviews the major research activities carried out in rodent paleoparasitology from South America, aiming to integrate data and generate prospects in this field of research. The presence of rodent parasites in ancient times can provide useful and valuable information, as rodent paleoparasitological data can be used from diverse point of views. Anthropologists, biologists, archaeologists, and paleontologists can use this data to reconstruct ancient events based on the parasite life cycles and on the biological requirements to maintain the transmission from host to host. Rodent paleoparasitology may provide a picture of the biodiversity of parasites in ancient times. Although rodent remains are generally present in ancient times, their recovery from archaeological and paleontological contexts is still exceptional. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Leles D.,Federal University of Fluminense | Cascardo P.,Federal University of Fluminense | Freire A.D.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Maldonado A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2014

Echinostomiasis is a zoonosis caused by intestinal trematodes and transmitted by the ingestion of mollusks, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, and reptiles, either raw or poorly cooked. Today human infection is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Far East, but has been reported more recently in other regions of the world. Interestingly eggs identified as Echinostoma sp. were found in coprolites from a mummified body human in Brazil, dated 560. ±. 40 BP (before present). However, the specific diagnosis based on morphology of the eggs has not been resolved at the species level. As a follow-up to the previous finding, the current study now aims to standardize the methodology for molecular diagnosis and apply it to the coprolite, using current Echinostoma paraensei-positive feces as the reference, and also the same fecal material dried in a stove as an experimental coprolite model. Isolated eggs of E. paraensei and adult worm were included to verify the sensibility and as positive control, respectively. An adult worm of E. luisreyi was used for comparison. PCR using primers in-house for ITS1 region (126. bp) and cox1 (123. bp) of Echinostoma spp. and subsequent nucleotide sequencing were performed. This is the first molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis for echinostomiasis. The methodology was able to amplify specific DNA fragments for the genus Echinostoma sp. in all samples: adult worm, feces, and a single egg of the parasite, in both the experimental coprolite and archaeological sample. Additionally we observed that ancient DNA can also be retrieved without rehydrating the material. The nucleotide sequences from E. paraensei and E. luisreyi are very similar in the fragment analyzed that difficult the differentiation these species, but DNA sequence analysis recovered in the parasite found in the mummy showed more similarity with the species E. paraensei. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Leles D.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | Leles D.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Araujo A.,Laboratorio Of Paleoparasitologia | Vicente A.C.P.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Iniguez A.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Parasitology International | Year: 2010

The zoonotic potential of Ascaris infecting pigs has stimulated studies of molecular epidemiology with internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) as the target. The aim of this study was to determine the value of Ascaris ITS1 as a molecular marker through assessing the intra-individual genetic diversity of Ascaris isolates from two geographical areas of Brazil. DNA was extracted from single isolated eggs, ITS1 PCR was performed, and the PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Clone analysis showed high ITS1 intra-individual variability revealed by 2-4 ITS1 genotypes/haplotypes per sample (egg). Two genotypes, G1 and G6, and 13 new haplotypes were detected and characterized. The most prevalent in humans, G1 and/or the Brazilian G6, were detected in all samples. Except for genotype G1, no relationship was observed between Brazilian ITS1 genotypes/haplotypes and those previously described in China, Bangladesh, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, and Denmark, with respect to geographic origin or host affiliation. However, an association between the two geographically separated Brazilian ITS1 isolates was observed. The ITS1 intra-individual variability revealed in this study indicated that the use of this genetic region to discriminate human and pig Ascaris genotypes should be reconsidered. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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