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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Postel-Vinay S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Postel-Vinay S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Veron A.S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tirode F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 28 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

Ewing sarcoma, a pediatric tumor characterized by EWSR1-ETS fusions, is predominantly observed in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 401 French individuals with Ewing sarcoma, 684 unaffected French individuals and 3,668 unaffected individuals of European descent and living in the United States. We identified candidate risk loci at 1p36.22, 10q21 and 15q15. We replicated these loci in two independent sets of cases and controls. Joint analysis identified associations with rs9430161 (P = 1.4 × 10 -20; odds ratio (OR) = 2.2) located 25 kb upstream of TARDBP, rs224278 (P = 4.0 × 10 -17; OR = 1.7) located 5 kb upstream of EGR2 and, to a lesser extent, rs4924410 at 15q15 (P = 6.6 × 10 -9; OR = 1.5). The major risk haplotypes were less prevalent in Africans, suggesting that these loci could contribute to geographical differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence. TARDBP shares structural similarities with EWSR1 and FUS, which encode RNA binding proteins, and EGR2 is a target gene of EWSR1-ETS. Variants at these loci were associated with expression levels of TARDBP, ADO (encoding cysteamine dioxygenase) and EGR2. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Pasello M.,Laboratorio Of Oncologia Sperimentale | Manara M.C.,Laboratorio Of Oncologia Sperimentale | Michelacci F.,Laboratorio Of Oncologia Sperimentale | Fanelli M.,Laboratorio Of Oncologia Sperimentale | And 8 more authors.
Analytical Cellular Pathology | Year: 2011

Recent studies have indicated that targeting glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes may be a promising novel strategy to improve the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy in the three most common musculoskeletal tumours: osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. By using a panel of 15 drug-sensitive and drug-resistant human osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, the efficay of the GST-targeting agent 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol (NBDHEX) has been assessed and related to GST isoenzymes expression (namely GSTP1, GSTA1, GSTM1, and MGST). NBDHEX showed a relevant in vitro activity on all cell lines, including the drug-resistant ones and those with higher GSTs levels. The in vitro activity of NBDHEX was mostly related to cytostatic effects, with a less evident apoptotic induction. NBDHEX positively interacted with doxorubicin, vincristine, cisplatin but showed antagonistic effects with methotrexate. In vivo studies confirmed the cytostatic efficay of NBDHEX and its positive interaction with vincristine in Ewing's sarcoma cells, and also indicated a positive effect against the metastatisation of osteosarcoma cells. The whole body of evidence found in this study indicated that targeting GSTs in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma may be an interesting new therapeutic option, which can be considered for patients who are scarcely responsive to conventional regimens. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Mohseny A.B.,Leiden University | MacHado I.,University of Valencia | Cai Y.,Leiden University | Cai Y.,Shandong University | And 5 more authors.
Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2011

Cancer cell lines represent in vitro models for studying malignancies, general cell biology, drug discovery and more. Whether they can be considered as exact representative models of the parental tumors remains uncertain given the acquisition of additional ex vivo changes of the cells and the lack of tissue architecture and stroma. Previously, within the EuroBoNeT consortium, we characterized a collection of bone sarcoma cell lines on genomic and proteomic level. Here, we address the phenotypical and functional characterization of the unique set of osteosarcoma cell lines (n19) in vitro and in vivo. For functional analysis of differentiation capacity, cells were stimulated towards osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, all cell lines were injected subcutaneously and intramuscularly into nude mice to assay their in vivo tumor formation capacity as well as for phenotypical analysis of the tumors. All formed tumors were further characterized histologically and immunohistochemically. Out of 19 cell lines, 17 (89%) showed adipogenic differentiation, 13/19 (68%) could differentiate towards osteoblasts and in 6/19 (32%) cell lines chondrogenic differentiation was evident. About half of the cell lines (8/19, 42%) produced tumors in vivo after subcutaneous and intramuscular injections. Several cell lines showed invasion into adjacent tissues and one tumor developed several lung metastases. The use of cell lines, especially in cancer research, is of paramount importance. Here, we identify comprehensively characterized osteosarcoma cell lines, which robustly represent clinical osteosarcoma providing researchers useful in vitro and in vivo models to study the genetics and functional characteristics of this highly malignant neoplasm. © 2011 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved. Source

Pahl J.H.W.,Leiden University | Ruslan S.E.N.,Leiden University | Buddingh E.P.,Leiden University | Santos S.J.,Leiden University | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma are the most common bone tumors in children and adolescents. Despite intensive chemotherapy, patients with advanced disease have a poor prognosis, illustrating the need for alternative therapies. Sarcoma cells are susceptible to the cytolytic activity of resting natural killer (NK) cells which can be improved by interleukin (IL)-15 stimulation. In this study, we explored whether the cytolytic function of resting NK cells can be augmented and specifically directed toward sarcoma cells by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Experimental Design: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression was examined on osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma cell lines by flow cytometry and in osteosarcoma biopsy and resection specimens by immunohistochemistry. Cetuximab-mediated ADCC by NKcells from osteosarcoma patients and healthy controls was measured with 4-hour 51Cr release assays. Results: EGFR surface expression was shown on chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma cells (12/12), most primary osteosarcoma cultures (4/5), and few Ewing's sarcoma cell lines (2/7). In the presence of cetuximab, the cytolytic activity of resting NK cells against all EGFR-expressing sarcoma cells was substantially increased and comparable with that of IL-15-activated NK cells. Surface EGFR expression on primary osteosarcoma cultures correlated with EGFR expression in the original tumor. The cytolytic activity of osteosarcoma patient-derivedNKcells against autologous tumor cells was as efficient as that of NK cells from healthy donors. Conclusion: Our data show that the cytolytic potential of resting NK cells can be potentiated and directed toward osteosarcoma cells with cetuximab. Therefore, cetuximab-mediated immunotherapy may be considered a novel treatment modality in the management of advanced osteosarcoma. ©2011 AACR. Source

Buddingh E.P.,Leiden University | Schilham M.W.,Leiden University | Ruslan S.E.N.,Leiden University | Berghuis D.,Leiden University | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2011

High-grade osteosarcoma occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults and has an overall survival rate of about 60%, despite chemotherapy and surgery. Therefore, novel treatment modalities are needed to prevent or treat recurrent disease. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity toward virus-infected or malignant cells. We explored the feasibility of autologous and allogeneic NK cell-mediated therapies for chemotherapy- resistant and chemotherapy-sensitive high-grade osteosarcoma. The expression by osteosarcoma cells of ligands for activating NK cell receptors was studied in vitro and in vivo, and their contribution to NK cell-mediated cytolysis was studied by specific antibody blockade. Chromium release cytotoxicity assays revealed chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma primary cultures to be sensitive to NK cell-mediated cytolysis. Cytolytic activity was strongly enhanced by IL-15 activation and was dependent on DNAM-1 and NKG2D pathways. Autologous and allogeneic activated NK cells lysed osteosarcoma primary cultures equally well. Osteosarcoma patient-derived NK cells were functionally and phenotypically unimpaired. In conclusion, osteosarcoma cells, including chemoresistant variants, are highly susceptible to lysis by IL-15-induced NK cells from both allogeneic and autologous origin. Our data support the exploitation of NK cells or NK cell-activating agents in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. © 2011 The Author(s). Source

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