Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico
Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico

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Ortega-Legaspi J.M.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Integrativa | Ortega-Legaspi J.M.,Emory University | de Gortari P.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Molecular | Garduno-Gutierrez R.,Direccion de Neurociencias | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Pain | Year: 2011

Background: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R) receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2) in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS) was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals.A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot.Results: The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region.Conclusions: This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat. © 2011 Ortega-Legaspi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Coffeen U.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Integrativa | Ortega-Legaspi J.M.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Integrativa | Ortega-Legaspi J.M.,Emory University | de Gortari P.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Molecular | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Pain | Year: 2010

Background: The insular cortex (IC) receives somatosensory afferent input and has been related to nociceptive input. It has dopaminergic terminals and D1 (D1R) -excitatory- and D2 (D2R) -inhibitory- receptors. D2R activation with a selective agonist, as well as D1R blockade with antagonists in the IC, diminish neuropathic nociception in a nerve transection model. An intraplantar injection of carrageenan and acute thermonociception (plantar test) were performed to measure the response to inflammation (paw withdrawal latency, PWL). Simultaneously, a freely moving microdyalisis technique and HPLC were used to measure the release of dopamine and its metabolites in the IC. Plantar test was applied prior, one and three hours after inflammation. Also, mRNA levels of D1 and D2R's were measured in the IC after three hours of inflammation.Results: The results showed a gradual decrease in the release of dopamine, Dopac and HVA after inflammation. The decrease correlates with a decrease in PWL. D2R's increased their mRNA expression compared to the controls. In regard of D1R's, there was a decrease in their mRNA levels compared to the controls.Conclusions: Our results showed that the decreased extracellular levels of dopamine induced by inflammation correlated with the level of pain-related behaviour. These results also showed the increase in dopaminergic mediated inhibition by an increase in D2R's and a decrease in D1R's mRNA. There is a possible differential mechanism regarding the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory dopaminergic receptors triggered by inflammation. © 2010 Coffeen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ortega-Legaspi J.M.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Integrativa | Leon-Olea M.,Laboratorio Of Histologia Y Microscopia Electronica | De Gortari P.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Molecular | Amaya M.I.,Laboratorio Of Neurofisiologia Molecular | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Pain | Year: 2010

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and muscarinic receptors modulate pain. This study investigates changes in the expression of muscarinic-1 and -2 receptors (M1R, M2R) in rats' ACC (cg1-rostral- and cg2-caudal) using a model of neuropathic pain by denervation, measured as autotomy score (AS) for 8 days. Changes were analysed with painful stimuli and with scopolamine into the ACC prior to this scheme. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence to determine M1R and M2R's mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Animals were divided in low, medium and high AS groups. Cg1 showed decreased mRNA levels for both M1R and M2R in the low AS group, as opposed to an increased expression in the medium and high AS groups. Both receptors correlated positively with AS in these groups. In the scopolamine-treated animals there was an increase in mRNA levels for both receptors in cg1, whereas in cg2, mRNA levels of M1R decreased in all the AS and scopolamine groups. The increased M2R mRNA in cg2 correlated with AS in the low, medium and high AS groups whereas all the scopolamine groups showed an increase. Immunoreactivity of the M2R in cg1 decreased in the medium AS group in comparison to controls but scopolamine treatment produced an increase in the medium scopolamine AS group compared to the medium AS group. The M1R in cg1 and both receptors in cg2 showed no immunoreactivity changes. These results highlight the role of the M2R in cg1 related to the degree of autotomy. © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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