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Santos I.J.M.,Laboratorio Of Zoologia | Melo Coutinho H.D.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia E Biologia Molecular | Ferreira Matias E.F.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia E Biologia Molecular | Martins da Costa J.G.,Regional University of Cariri | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Arid Environments

The reptiles are the animal species most often used in traditional medicine. Tropidurus hispidus and ameiva ameiva are two species of lizards utilized as medicines in zootherapic practice in Brazilian semiarid region. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of extracts of the skin of Ameiva ameiva (MEAA) and T. hispidus (METH). The samples were tested against standard and multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus and Pseudomonas aureuginosa, alone and in combination with aminoglycoside antibiotics. Alone, none of the samples showed significant inhibition of bacterial growth at clinically relevant concentrations. However, combinated with the antibiotics, MEAA potentiated the effect of amikacin and gentamicin, reducing their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. METH lowered the MIC of gentamicin against S. aureus. Chemical prospecting of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids in both, which can account for the modulatory action of the extracts, indicating a promising source of new drugs with antibiotic properties. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Da Cunha F.A.B.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia E Biologia Molecular | Wallau G.L.,Federal University of Pampa | Pinho A.I.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia E Biologia Molecular | Nunes M.E.M.,Federal University of Pampa | And 9 more authors.
Toxicology Research

Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae family), also known as "pitanga", is a tree species widely used in popular medicine. Despite the well documented beneficial effects of the extracts and essential oils from this plant, little is known about its toxicity. We performed a phytochemical fingerprinting and evaluated the toxicity induced by the Eugenia uniflora leaves essential oil in a Drosophila melanogaster model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms involved in E. uniflora essential oil toxicity, changes in the Nrf2 signaling as well as the hallmarks of oxidative stress were measured. The exposure of adult flies to the essential oil via a fumigant method resulted in increased mortality and locomotor deficits. In parallel, an oxidative stress response signaling, evidenced by changes in ROS production, lipid peroxidation, alterations in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Nrf2 protein targets occurred. In the light of our findings, attention is drawn to the indiscriminate use of this plant for medicinal purposes. In addition, a potential bio-insecticidal activity of Eugenia uniflora volatile compounds is suggested, a fact that needs to be further explored. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

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