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Monica C.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia Molecular | Monica C.,University of Santiago de Cali | Cecilia S.M.,University of Valle | GOmez R.F.,Infecciosas del Hospital Departamental Evaristo Garcia
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia | Year: 2013

Objective. To identify Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to antibiotics isolated from infections associated to health care in a tertiary hospital in the city of Cali, which can be inferred to the predominant resistance mechanism. materials and method. Susceptibility data was obtained from 1,899 isolates of enteric Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenting lactose bacteria, during 2007-2008. results. The most frequent isolates were E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis with variable resistance to ß-lactams except carbapenems. Ps. aeruginosa showed simultaneous resistance to ß-lactams (including imipenem) and aminoglycosides, but susceptibility to quinolones and meropemen. Simultaneous resistance to cefoxitin, third generation cephalosporins, β-lactamase inhibitors and susceptibility to cefepime observed in isolates of P. mirabilis, E. aerogenes, C. freundii and K. pneumoniae is probably due to production of β-lactamase Amp C. Resistance to cephalosporins of third and fourth generation, aztreonam and β-lactamase inhibitors in isolates of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa, E. cloacae, C. freundii, M. morganii and K. pneumaniae, suggests ESBL-mediated resistance. conclusions. The high resistance to aminoglycosides, inhibitors of DNA, and production of ß-lactamases may be related to the indiscriminate use of these antibiotics in the hospital. The interpretation of susceptibility can be inferred to underlying resistance mechanisms, allowing not only to guide the antibiotic treatment, but helping predict which antibiotics could not be appropriate, taking into account the most likely underlying mechanism. Copyright © Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología 2013.

Zamudio-Cuevas Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Rehabilitacion | Zamudio-Cuevas Y.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia Molecular | Diaz-Sobac R.,University of Xalapas | Vazquez-Luna A.,University of Xalapas | And 6 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2014

Cellular oxidative stress produced by an increase in free radicals is one of the factors that promote the development of chronic degenerative diseases; therefore, consuming natural antioxidants helps minimize their negative effects. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of the soursop extract (Annona muricata), its cytoprotective capacity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, the inhibitory potential of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the molecular mechanism of its antioxidant action, and its capacity to repair cellular damage in the fibroblast cell line. The soursop extract proved not to be cytotoxic in fibroblast cultures and showed cytoprotective capacity against hydrogen peroxide-induced stress; in cell culture it reduced the generation of ROS significantly by inhibiting a sub-unit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme (p47phox). The soursop extract can prevent damage caused by cellular oxidants. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Villasenor Martinez R.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia Molecular | Farias Flores G.,Laboratorio Clinico | Carrillo Macias M.E.,Laboratorio Clinico | Jauregui Lomeli J.J.,Programa de Medicina en la Comunidad | And 4 more authors.
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND. The prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals and in nasal carriers of urban and rural communities is variable, reason why local information is crucial for a proper patient management. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A transversal comparative study, from August 2009 to February 2011, was made. From a Children's Hospital were isolated 169 MRSA (monthly prevalence ranged 5-76%) and 314 Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). In ambulatory people of urban zone: Cultures from nostrils of 219 nursery students and their familiars, and 40 pre-surgical children at hospital admission were included, from the rural zone: 286 patients with no infectious problems, attending primary care settings were also cultured. Nostrils cultures were performed and plated on selective medium, and S. aureus identified by standard techniques. Susceptibility to cefoxitin (FOX), erythromycin (E), rifampim (RA), clindamycin (CC), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) was performed by Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI 2010. D-test was performed. RESULTS. From the Children's Hospital were studied 69 strains, 67 MRSA and 2 MSSA. From urban zone: we isolated 42 (16%) S. aureus strains; 5 (12%) MRSA and 37 MSSA, from rural zone: we isolated 24 (8%) S. aureus strains; 1 (4%) MRSA and 23 MSSA. Resistance of all MRSA strains to E, RA, CC y SXT was 96, 0, 89 y 0% respectively; of MSSA strains resistance was 15, 0, 0 y 0% respectively. In strains from urban zone, D test was positive in 13% of the MSSA. conclusions. The prevalence of MRSA in the Children's Hospital was similar to other reports worldwide. Prevalence of nasal carriers from urban and rural zone was lower than other reports.

Hernandez E.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia Molecular | Hernandez E.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Hernandez E.,Laboratorio Of Salud Publica Del Estado Merida | Araque M.,Laboratorio Of Microbiologia Molecular | And 4 more authors.
Investigacion Clinica (Venezuela) | Year: 2014

In this study we determined the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in the community. Twenty one UPEC strains with reduced susceptibility to broad-spectrum cephalosporins were collected between January 2009 and July 2010, from patients with urinary tract infection who attended the Public Health Laboratory in Mérida, Venezuela. Genotypic characterization determined that all UPEC strains harbored blaBLEEsgenes: 76.2% of the strains showed the presence of a single ESBL-producer gene, represented by blaCTX-M-15, whereas 23.8% of UPEC showed various combinations of bla genes (blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15+ blaSHVand blaSHV+ blaTEM-1). In this study, 61.9% of the isolates were placed in phylogroup A and the remaining strains were assigned to group B2 (38.1%). There was no evidence of spread of a particular UPEC clone; only seven strains belonged to a clonal group with an index of similarity greater than 85%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of blaCTX-M-15 in UPEC from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections, which shows that Venezuela is also part of the so-called CTX-M-15 pandemic. The findings in this study, as well as its clinical and epidemiological implications, lead to the need for monitoring and controlling the spread of CTX-M-15 producing UPECs, not only regionally, but also nationwide. © 2014, Investigacion Clinica (Venezuela). All rights reserved.

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