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Satureja macrostema (SM) is used with culinary and medicinal purposes. Methanol extract from SM was investigated for its phenolic content, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and kidney protective activities. Liver and kidney damage were induced in rats with CCl4. Hepatoprotective efficacy was measured by the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and total protein, and lipid peroxidation. Kidney function was evaluated by measuring plasma urea and creatinine. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring blood glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and malondialdehyde equivalent; their activity was comparable to that of silymarin, a well-known hepatoprotective agent. Methanol extracts of S. macrostema showed potent antioxidant, kidney protective, and hepatoprotective activities; in-depth chromatographic investigation resulted in the identification of six new flavonoid glycosides: 5-hydroxy-3,6,4′- trimethoxyflavonol-7-C-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d- glucopyranoside (2), 4′-methoxy-5,7,3′,5′-tetra- hydroxyflavanone-3-O-β-d-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d- rhamnopyranoside (3), 5,4′-dimethoxy-7,3′,5′- trihydroxyflavanone-3-O-β-d-rhamnopyranoside (4), 5,3′,4′, 5′-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-β-d-rhamnopyranoside (5), 5,3′,4′,5′-tetramethoxyflavanone-7-O-β-d- rhamnopyranoside (6), and 5,4′-dimethoxy-3′-hydroxyflavone-7-β- d-rhamnopyranoside (8) along with three known compounds: 5-hydroxy-7,4′- dimethoxyflavone (1), prunin (7), and diosmin (9) that were isolated. Structural elucidation of the new compounds was established based on the spectral data. The present study revealed that S. macrostema leaves have a significant radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Gutierrez R.M.P.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Of Productos Naturales | del Socorro Lopez Cortez M.,Dpo de Graduados de Alimentos | Cardenas S.A.,Dpo de Graduados de Alimentos
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

Accelerated formation of advanced glycation an end-products (AGEs) has been complicated in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications. Several natural and synthetic compounds have been proposed and tested, as inhibitors of glycation and AGEs formation. The present study reports effect of seed extracts of. B. orellana on inhibition of glycation and AGEs formation in vitro. We have identified five known active principles namely geranylgeranyl (1), farnesylacetone (2), geranylgeranyl octadecanoato (3), geranylgeranyl formiate (4) and geranylgeranyl acetate (5) from chloroform extract of the seeds. We measured the effect of various concentrations of active principles (1 to 5) on the glycemic status of diabetic STZ Wistar strain albino rats. Among the various concentrations tested, only the geranylgeranyl octadecanoato showed hypoglycemic activity, may be due to stimulating peripheral utilization of glucose, improving glucose uptake by adipose tissue and muscle. In contrast, rats treated with geranylgeranyl acetate showed hyperglycemia by decreasing the levels of plasma insulin levels. In vitro assays were also performed to determine positive mechanisms of active principles of seed extracts in inhibiting glycation and AGEs formation. Geranylgeranyl octadecanoate was found to be the most active principle affecting inhibition of AGEs followed by geranylgeraniol >farnesilacetona, geranylgeranyl formiate> geranylgeranyl acetate. The mechanim of inhi bition on AGEs of geranylgeraniol derivatives occurs in the stage of the formation of fructosamine (Amadori compounds). These mechanisms may help to provide a protective effect against hyperglycemiamediated protein damage. These observations provide investigators additional therapeutic options for treatment of various complications of diabetes. ©2011 Academic Journals. Source


Gutierrez R.M.P.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Of Productos Naturales | Navarro Y.T.G.,Laboratorio Of Tecnologia Of Alimentos
Pharmacognosy Magazine | Year: 2010

Satureja Macrostema is used both as a functional food and as a drug. In this study, the antioxidative potential of the methanol extract of Satureja Macrostema (SM) was evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including DPPH, superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl radical scavenging and iron-chelating activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of SM was also determined by a colorimetric method. The extract exhibited powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and iron-chelating activity as well as a moderate effect on NO and superoxide anions. The protective effects of methanol extract of SM were studied in carbon tetrachloride-reduced biochemical markers of hepatic injury such as glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxalaoacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum bilirubin, cholesterol alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The increased level of HDL demonstrated dose dependant reduction in the in vivo peroxidation induced by CCl4. SM could protect from paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from paracetamol. Degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum transaminase (GOT and GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and bilirubin. Hexane and chloroform extracts did not show any effects. Results obtained in the present study suggest that S. Macrostema elicits hepatoprotectivity through antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats. Source


Gutierrez R.M.P.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Of Productos Naturales | Gonzalez A.M.N.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Of Productos Naturales | Diaz S.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Of Productos Naturales
Chemistry of Natural Compounds | Year: 2010

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of bulbs of the orchid P. michuacana was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents. The use of DPPH assay led to the isolation of two new lanostane triterpenoids 3α-acetoxy, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11),25- diene (1) and 3α-acetoxy, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11)ene (2), a new stilbene α-α'-dihydro,3',5',2-trimethoxy-3-hydroxy- 4-acetyl-4'-isopentenylstilbene (3), the phenanthrene 4,6,7-trihydroxy-2- methoxy-8-(methylbut-2- enyl)phenanthrene-1,1'-4',6',7'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy- 8'-(methylbut-2'-enyl)phenanthrene (4), one new abietane-type diterpene 12-hydroxy-3β,7β,18α-triacetoxy-8,11,13-abietatriene (5), together with gigantol (6), a known compound. The compounds were identified by spectral analysis and comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. Compounds 3, 4, 5, and 6 showed DPPH and ABTS radicalscavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities, but none of the isolated triterpenes showed promising antioxidant activity. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. Source


The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from fruits of Ferocactus latispinus and Ferocactus histrix were evaluated by oral administration to normoglucemic and streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). The anti-diabetic effect was examined by blood glucose, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol levels in the serum, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) levels. The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extracts from F. latispinus and F. histrix increased activities of SOD, GR, GSHPx and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and the plasma insulin levels. They also, decreased glucokinase (GK) and TBAR (thiobarbituric acid assay). Of the two plants studied F. latispinus showed better antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects that F. histrix. In conclusion F. latispinus and F. histrix possesses significant antihyperglycemic properties after 4 h after a single oral dose. It can also improve hyperlipidemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic. These results demonstrated that F. latispinus and F. histrix typically used as a health food, has strong antidiabetic effects in vivo, thus, it may have beneficial properties in the prevention of diabetes. © 2010 Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas. Source

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