Rodriguez A.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Fepis |
Rodriguez A.,Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador |
Rodriguez A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Vaca M.G.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Fepis |
And 6 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2015
Background: The acquisition of a modern lifestyle may explain variations in asthma prevalence between urban and rural areas in developing countries. However, the effects of lifestyle on asthma have been investigated as individual factors with little consideration given to the effects of lifestyle as a set of attributes. The aim of the present study was to identify modern lifestyle domains and assess how these domains might explain wheeze prevalence in urban and rural areas. Methods: We analysed data from cross-sectional studies of urban and rural schoolchildren in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Variables were grouped as indicators of socioeconomic factors, sedentarism, agricultural activities and household characteristics to represent the main lifestyle features of the study population. We used multiple correspondence analyses to identify common lifestyle domains and cluster analysis to allocate children to each domain. We evaluated associations between domains and recent wheeze by logistic regression. Results: We identified 2-3 lifestyle domains for each variable group. Although wheeze prevalence was similar in urban (9.4%) and rural (10.3%) schoolchildren, lifestyle domains presented clear associations with wheeze prevalence. Domains relating to home infrastructure (termed transitional, rudimentary, and basic urban) had the strongest overall effect on wheeze prevalence in both urban (rudimentary vs. basic urban, OR∈=∈2.38, 95% CI 1.12-5.05, p∈=∈0.024) and rural areas (transitional vs. basic urban, OR∈=∈2.02, 95% CI 1.1-3.73, p∈=∈0.024; rudimentary vs. basic urban, OR∈=∈1.88, 95% CI 1.02-3.47, p∈=∈0.043). A high level of sedentarism was associated with wheeze in the rural areas only (OR∈=∈1.64, 95% CI 1.23-2.18, p∈=∈0.001). Conclusions: We identified lifestyle domains associated with wheeze prevalence, particularly living in substandard housing and a high level of sedentarism. Such factors could be modified through programmes of improved housing and education. The use of lifestyle domains provides an alternative methodology for the evaluation of variations in wheeze prevalence in populations with different levels of development. © 2015 Rodriguez et al.; licensee BioMed Central.