Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Promerova M.,Uppsala University | Andersson L.S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Juras R.,Texas A&M University | Penedo M.C.T.,University of California at Davis | And 17 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2014

For centuries, domestic horses have represented an important means of transport and served as working and companion animals. Although their role in transportation is less important today, many horse breeds are still subject to intense selection based on their pattern of locomotion. A striking example of such a selected trait is the ability of a horse to perform additional gaits other than the common walk, trot and gallop. Those could be four-beat ambling gaits, which are particularly smooth and comfortable for the rider, or pace, used mainly in racing. Gaited horse breeds occur around the globe, suggesting that gaitedness is an old trait, selected for in many breeds. A recent study discovered that a nonsense mutation in DMRT3 has a major impact on gaitedness in horses and is present at a high frequency in gaited breeds and in horses bred for harness racing. Here, we report a study of the worldwide distribution of this mutation. We genotyped 4396 horses representing 141 horse breeds for the DMRT3 stop mutation. More than half (2749) of these horses also were genotyped for a SNP situated 32 kb upstream of the DMRT3 nonsense mutation because these two SNPs are in very strong linkage disequilibrium. We show that the DMRT3 mutation is present in 68 of the 141 genotyped horse breeds at a frequency ranging from 1% to 100%. We also show that the mutation is not limited to a geographical area, but is found worldwide. The breeds with a high frequency of the stop mutation (>50%) are either classified as gaited or bred for harness racing. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Gama L.T.,University of Lisbon | Martinez A.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Carolino I.,INIAV | Landi V.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 6 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2013

Background: Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. Methods. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Results: Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and within-breed components of genetic diversity. Conclusions: Native pig breeds in Iberia reveal high levels of genetic diversity, a solid breed structure and a clear organization in well-defined clusters. © 2013 Gama et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada, Northeast National University, National University of Colombia, University of Lisbon and University of Cordoba, Spain
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal science | Year: 2014

Little is known about local Criollo pig genetic resources and relationships among the various populations. In this paper, genetic diversity and relationships among 17 Criollo pig populations from 11 American countries were assessed with 24 microsatellite markers. Heterozygosities, F-statistics, and genetic distances were estimated, and multivariate, genetic structure and admixture analyses were performed. The overall means for genetic variability parameters based on the 24 microsatellite markers were the following: mean number of alleles per locus of 6.25 2.3; effective number of alleles per locus of 3.33 1.56; allelic richness per locus of 4.61 1.37; expected and observed heterozygosity of 0.62 0.04 and 0.57 0.02, respectively; within-population inbreeding coefficient of 0.089; and proportion of genetic variability accounted for by differences among breeds of 0.11 0.01. Genetic differences were not significantly associated with the geographical location to which breeds were assigned or their country of origin. Still, the NeighborNet dendrogram depicted the clustering by geographic origin of several South American breeds (Criollo Boliviano, Criollo of northeastern Argentina wet, and Criollo of northeastern Argentina dry), but some unexpected results were also observed, such as the grouping of breeds from countries as distant as El Salvador, Mexico, Ecuador, and Cuba. The results of genetic structure and admixture analyses indicated that the most likely number of ancestral populations was 11, and most breeds clustered separately when this was the number of predefined populations, with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. These results indicate that Criollo pigs represent important reservoirs of pig genetic diversity useful for local development as well as for the pig industry.


Lasagna E.,University of Perugia | Bianchi M.,University of Perugia | Ceccobelli S.,University of Perugia | Ceccobelli S.,University of Padua | And 6 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

The Merino-derived breeds represent a significant animal resource in terms of genetic diversity and socio-economic relevance. The aim of this investigation was to define the population structure and the genetic diversity of the Sopravissana, Merinizzata Italiana and Gentile di Puglia breeds by employing 30 microsatellite molecular markers, also taking Spanish Merino and Appenninica breeds into account, which are thought to represent the male and the female ancestors, respectively, of the Italian Merino-derived breeds. A further objective of this study was to remark on an issue generally linked to the development of genetic groups that are spread worldwide: the degree to which geographic effects and genetic origins are significantly influential in the evolution of a cosmopolitan genetic group, such Merino sheep. Blood samples from 174 individuals were collected and genotyped. A total of 366 alleles were detected. The mean number of alleles per breed ranged from 7.22 for Gentile di Puglia to 8.21 for Merinizzata Italiana. The mean values of observed heterozygosity (0.71) and expected heterozygosity (0.75) were high, suggesting that the total analysed population is characterised by noticeable genetic variability. The Fis calculated in each breed showed that a slight degree of heterozygosity deficiency exists within each breed. The Fst value calculated (0.048) (P<0.05) indicated the existence of poor segmentation among the subpopulations. According to the Fst genetic distance estimates, the most closely related breeds were Merinizzata Italiana and Gentile di Puglia (0.013). The genetic tree built using the Reynolds weighted genetic distance among populations shows the Merino-derived breeds occurring within a well-defined area, together with the Spanish Merino breed, confirming their hypothetical origin. STRUCTURE analysis showed that Sopravissana and, especially, Gentile di Puglia were breeds that were split into several genetic patterns, suggesting a significant occurrence of admixture within these breeds. The results arising from our microsatellites analysis could represent a starting point for planning aimed at the safeguarding and valorisation of the three Italian Merino-derived sheep breeds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Perez-Rico A.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | Crespo F.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Avila | Sanmartin M.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | De Santiago A.,Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija | Vega-Pla J.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

Equine germplasm bank management involves not only the conservation and use of semen doses, in addition it can also be a resource to study stallion semen quality and after thawing semen properties for reproductive purposes. A possible criterion to measure quality may be based on differential gene expression of loci involved during spermatogenesis and sperm quality maturation. The rapid degradation of sperm after thawing affects the integrity and availability of RNA. In this study we have analyzed genes expressed in equine cryopreserved sperm, which provided an adequate amplification, specificity, and stability to be used as future reference genes in expression studies. Live spermatozoa were selected from cryopreserved semen straws derived from 20 stallions, through a discontinuous concentration gradient. RNA purification followed a combination of the organic and column extraction methods together with a deoxyribonuclease treatment. The selective amplification of nine candidate genes was undertaken using reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) carried out in a one-step mode (qRT-PCR). Specificities were tested by melting curves, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing. In addition, gene stabilities were also calculated. Results indicated that five out of the nine candidate genes amplified properly (β-Actin, ATP synthase subunit beta, Protamine 1, L32 ribosomal protein and Ubiquitin B), of which β-Actin and the L32 Ribosomal protein showed the highest stability thus being the most suitable to be considered as reference genes for equine cryopreserved sperm studies, followed by the ATP synthase subunit beta and Ubiquitin B. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Aviles D.,Technical University of Ambato | Aviles D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Landi V.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Delgado J.V.,Animal Breeding Consulting | And 2 more authors.
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

The domestic guinea pig is a valuable genetic resource because it is part of local folklore and food tradition in many South American countries. The economic importance of the guinea pig is due to its high feed efficiency and the quality of animal protein produced. For these reasons, our study is aimed to design a complete dinucleotide microsatellite marker set following international recommendation to assess the genetic diversity and genealogy management of guinea pigs. We selected a total of 20 microsatellites, looking for laboratory efficiency and good statistical parameters. The set was tested in 100 unrelated individuals of guinea pigs from Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia and Spain. Our results show a high degree of polymorphisms with a total of 216 alleles and a mean number of 10.80±3.49 for markers with a combined exclusion probability of 0.99. © D. Aviles et al., 2015.


Armstrong E.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Iriarte A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Iriarte A.,Laboratorio Of Evolucion | Martinez A.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

The Uruguayan Creole cattle population (N = 600) is located in a native habitat in south-east Uruguay. We analyzed its genetic diversity and compared it to other populations of American Creole cattle. A random sample of 64 animals was genotyped for a set of 17 microsatellite loci, and the D-loop hyper-variable region of mtDNA was sequenced for 28 calves of the same generation. We identified an average of 5.59 alleles per locus, with expected heterozygosities between 0.466 and 0.850 and an expected mean heterozygosity of 0.664. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.360 to 0.820, and the global FIS index was 0.037. The D-loop analysis revealed three haplotypes (UY1, UY2 and UY3), belonging to the European matriline group, with a haplotype diversity of 0.532. The history of the population, changes in the effective population size, bottlenecks, and genetic drift are possible causes of the genetic variability patterns that we detected. ©FUNPEC-RP.


Brandariz-Fontes C.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Brandariz-Fontes C.,University of Panamá | Leonard J.A.,EBD Group | Vega-Pla J.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects. © 2013 Brandariz-Fontes et al.


Villalobos Cortes A.I.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria | Martinez A.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Escobar C.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria | Vega-Pla J.L.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada | Delgado J.V.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

A total of 61 individuals belonging to the Guaymi (GY) and Guabala (GUA) populations were typed with 27 microsatellites. A mean of 5.61 (GUA) and 7.5 (GY) alleles per population was typed, and Fis values were 0.053 (GUA) and 0.033 (GY). The exclusive alleles of each population were 67 (GY) compared to the 16 observed in the GUA population, while 135 alleles are shared by both. The Ho and He were 0.628 (GUA) and 0.710 (GY) and 0.648 (GUA) and 0.724 (GY) respectively. The fixation index Fst was 0.068 demonstrating a moderate level of genetic differentiation. The effective number of migrants per generations was 3.40 between GY and GUA. A comparison with most popular breeds in Panama Bos indicus (GYR, BRH, SIN, GUZ and NEL) and Bos taurus (FRI, SPA and HER) was made because of possible crossbreeding. The AMOVA and a NeighborNet tree performed, provided a detailed interrelationship network, and show an important difference between Panama creoles cattle population and most popular breeds. Strategies for preserving the original Panama cattle creole population should be considered in order to prevent the breed from becoming extinct and to strengthen the breed's capability in future breeding programs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Investigacion Aplicada, Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Avila and Centro Militar Of Cria Caballar Of Ecija
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2014

Equine germplasm bank management involves not only the conservation and use of semen doses, in addition it can also be a resource to study stallion semen quality and after thawing semen properties for reproductive purposes. A possible criterion to measure quality may be based on differential gene expression of loci involved during spermatogenesis and sperm quality maturation. The rapid degradation of sperm after thawing affects the integrity and availability of RNA. In this study we have analyzed genes expressed in equine cryopreserved sperm, which provided an adequate amplification, specificity, and stability to be used as future reference genes in expression studies. Live spermatozoa were selected from cryopreserved semen straws derived from 20 stallions, through a discontinuous concentration gradient. RNA purification followed a combination of the organic and column extraction methods together with a deoxyribonuclease treatment. The selective amplification of nine candidate genes was undertaken using reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) carried out in a one-step mode (qRT-PCR). Specificities were tested by melting curves, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing. In addition, gene stabilities were also calculated. Results indicated that five out of the nine candidate genes amplified properly (-Actin, ATP synthase subunit beta, Protamine 1, L32 ribosomal protein and Ubiquitin B), of which -Actin and the L32 Ribosomal protein showed the highest stability thus being the most suitable to be considered as reference genes for equine cryopreserved sperm studies, followed by the ATP synthase subunit beta and Ubiquitin B.

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