Time filter

Source Type

Heinz T.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alvarez-Iglesias V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Pardo-Seco J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Taboada-Echalar P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 7 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics

We have genotyped 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) in two of the most populated areas in Bolivia, namely, La Paz (Andean region; n = 105), and Chuquisaca (Sub-Andean region; n = 73). Using different analytical tools, we inferred admixture proportions of these two American communities by comparing the genetic profiles with those publicly available from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) panel representing three main continental groups (Africa, Europe, and America). By way of simulations, we first evaluated the minimum sample size needed in order to obtain accurate estimates of ancestry proportions. The results indicated that sample sizes above 30 individuals could be large enough to estimate main continental ancestry proportions using the 46 AIMs panel. With the exception of a few individuals, the results also indicated that Bolivians showed a predominantly Native American ancestry with variable levels of European admixture. The proportions of ancestry were statistically different in La Paz and Chuquisaca: the Native American component was 86% and 77% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value = 2.1 × 10-5), while the European ancestry was 13% and 21% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value = 3.6 × 10-5), respectively. The African ancestry in Bolivians captured by the AIMs analyzed in the present study was below 2%. The inferred ancestry of Bolivians fits well with previous studies undertaken on haplotype data, indicating a major proportion of Native American lineages. The genetic differences observed in these two groups suggest that forensic genetic analysis should be better performed based on local databases built in the main Bolivian areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Taboada-Echalar P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alvarez-Iglesias V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Heinz T.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Vidal-Bralo L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 8 more authors.

Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs). Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4%) were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%), with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]). Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ~21.4 thousand years ago [kya]), A2ah (~5.2 kya), and B2o (~2.6 kya). The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded), moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ~15.2 kya), and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) reveal a higher (although geographically variable) European introgression in Bolivians (25%). Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to the lowlands. Both autosomes and mtDNA revealed a low impact (1-2%) of a sub-Saharan component in Bolivians. © 2013 Taboada-Echalar et al. Source

Chiapello L.S.,National University of Cordoba | Dib M.D.,Hospital Pediatrico del Nino Jesus | Nuncira C.T.,Hospital Pediatrico del Nino Jesus | Nardelli L.,Hospital Pediatrico del Nino Jesus | And 6 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Dermatophytic mycetoma is an extremely rare subcutaneous mycosis. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl with clinical, histologic, and mycologic findings consistent with a mycetoma of the scalp caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the immunologic and immunogenetic features of a patient with a recalcitrant dermatophytic mycetoma. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Catelli M.L.,Equipo Argentino de Antropologia Forense | Alvarez-Iglesias V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gomez-Carballa A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mosquera-Miguel A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics

Background: The genetic background of Argentineans is a mosaic of different continental ancestries. From colonial to present times, the genetic contribution of Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans has superposed to or replaced the indigenous genetic 'stratum'. A sample of 384 individuals representing different Argentinean provinces was collected and genotyped for the first and the second mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable regions, and selectively genotyped for mtDNA SNPs. This data was analyzed together with additional 440 profiles from rural and urban populations plus 304 from Native American Argentineans, all available from the literature. A worldwide database was used for phylogeographic inferences, inter-population comparisons, and admixture analysis. Samples identified as belonging to hg (hg) H2a5 were sequenced for the entire mtDNA genome.Results: Phylogenetic and admixture analyses indicate that only half of the Native American component in urban Argentineans might be attributed to the legacy of extinct ancestral Argentineans and that the Spanish genetic contribution is slightly higher than the Italian one. Entire H2a5 genomes linked these Argentinean mtDNAs to the Basque Country and improved the phylogeny of this Basque autochthonous clade. The fingerprint of African slaves in urban Argentinean mtDNAs was low and it can be phylogeographically attributed predominantly to western African. The European component is significantly more prevalent in the Buenos Aires province, the main gate of entrance for Atlantic immigration to Argentina, while the Native American component is larger in North and South Argentina. AMOVA, Principal Component Analysis and hgs/haplotype patterns in Argentina revealed an important level of genetic sub-structure in the country.Conclusions: Studies aimed to compare mtDNA frequency profiles from different Argentinean geographical regions (e.g., forensic and case-control studies) should take into account the important genetic heterogeneity of the country in order to prevent false positive claims of association in disease studies or inadequate evaluation of forensic evidence. © 2011 Catelli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations