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Giacomazzi J.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Aguiar E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Palmero E.I.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Schmidt A.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 14 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2012

Polymorphisms of hormone receptor genes have been linked to modifications in reproductive factors and to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). In the present study, we have determined the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the ERα-97 PvuII C/T, ERα-351 XbaI A/G and PGR PROGINS polymorphisms and investigated their relationship with mammographic density, body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for BC. A consecutive and unselected sample of 750 Brazilian BC-unaffected women enrolled in a mammography screening program was recruited. The distribution of PGR PROGINS genotypic frequencies was 72.5, 25.5 and 2.0% for A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2, respectively, which was equivalent to that encountered in other studies with healthy women. The distribution of ERα genotypes was: ERα-397 PvuII C/T: 32.3% TT, 47.5% TC, and 20.2% CC; ERα-351 XbaI A/G: 46.3% AA, 41.7% AG and 12.0% GG. ERα haplotypes were 53.5% PX, 14.3% Px, 0.3% pX, and 32.0% px. These were significantly different from most previously published reports worldwide (P < 0.05). Overall, the PGR PROGINS genotypes A2A2 and A1A2 were associated with fatty and moderately fatty breast tissue. The same genotypes were also associated with a high BMI in postmenopausal women. In addition, the ERα-351 XbaI GG genotype was associated with menarche ≥12 years (P = 0.02). ERα and PGR polymorphisms have a phenotypic effect and may play an important role in BC risk determination. Finally, if confirmed in BC patients, these associations could have important implications for mammographic screening and strategies and may be helpful to identify women at higher risk for the disease.

Ewald I.P.,Laboratorio Of Medicina Genomica | Ewald I.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Cossio S.L.,Laboratorio Of Medicina Genomica | Pinheiro M.,Instituto Portugues Of Oncologia Do Porto | And 21 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2016

Approximately 5-10% of breast cancers are caused by germline mutations in high penetrance predisposition genes. Among these, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are associated with the Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome, are the most frequently affected genes. Recent studies confirm that gene rearrangements, especially in BRCA1, are responsible for a significant proportion of mutations in certain populations. In this study we determined the prevalence of BRCA rearrangements in 145 unrelated Brazilian individuals at risk for HBOC syndrome who had not been previously tested for BRCA mutations. Using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and a specific PCR-based protocol to identify a Portuguese founder BRCA2 mutation, we identified two (1,4%) individuals with germline BRCA1 rearrangements (c.547+240_5193+178del and c.4675+467_5075-990del) and three probands with the c.156_157insAlu founder BRCA2 rearrangement. Furthermore, two families with false positive MLPA results were shown to carry a deleterious point mutation at the probe binding site. This study comprises the largest Brazilian series of HBOC families tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements to date and includes patients from three regions of the country. The overall observed rearrangement frequency of 3.44% indicates that rearrangements are relatively uncommon in the admixed population of Brazil. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética.

Battu C.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rieger D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Loureiro S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Furtado G.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 8 more authors.
Nutritional Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Background/objectives: Highly palatable food (HPF), which is enriched in simple sugars and saturated fat, contributes to obesity and insulin resistance in humans. These metabolic changes are associated with serious complications of the central nervous system, including an elevated risk of cognitive dysfunction. We, herein, treated rats with HPF and then examined the insulin-signaling pathway, in particular, the levels of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Methods: Adult Wistar rats fed with HPF (heated or not during preparation) for 4 months and then measured the levels of PI3K, Akt, and IRS-1 in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: We observed changes in body weight, glucose intolerance, and lipidemia, confirming that peripheral metabolic alterations were induced using this model. Hippocampal PI3K and hypothalamic Akt were affected in rats that are submitted to chronic exposure to an HPF diet. Moreover, heated HPF caused differentiated alterations in the regulatory subunit of PI3K in the hippocampus. Discussion: Our data suggest that this diet alters insulin signaling differentially in each brain region, and that hippocampal changes induced by this diet could contribute to the understanding of cognitive impairments that are dependent on the hippocampus. © W.S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012.

Souza G.N.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Kersting N.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Krum-Santos A.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Santos A.S.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 15 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2016

Controversies about Mendelian segregation and CAG expansion (CAGexp) instabilities during meiosis in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado–Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) need clarification. Additional evidence about these issues was obtained from the cohort of all SCA3/MJD individuals living in South Brazil. A survey was carried out to update information registered since 2001. Deaths were checked with the Public Information System, and data was made anonymous. Anticipation and delta-CAGexp from parent–offspring pairs, and delta-CAGexp between siblings were obtained. One hundred and fifty-nine families (94% of the entire registry) were retrieved, comprising 3725 living individuals as of 2015, 625 of these being symptomatic. Minimal prevalence was 6:100,000. Carriers of a CAGexp represented 65.6% of sibs in the genotyped offspring (p < 0.001). Median instability was larger among paternal than maternal transmissions, and instabilities correlated with anticipation (r = 0.38; p = 0.001). Age of the parent correlated to delta-CAGexp among 115 direct parent–offspring CAGexp transmissions (ρ = 0.23, p = 0.014). In 98 additional kindreds, the delta-CAGexp between 269 siblings correlated with their delta-of-age (ρ = 0.27, p < 0.0001). SCA3/MJD was associated with a segregation distortion favoring the expanded allele in our cohort. Instability of expansion during meiosis was weakly influenced by the age of the transmitting parent at the time of conception. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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