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Leon-Cabrera S.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Solis-Lozano L.,Laboratorio Of Higado | Solis-Lozano L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Suarez-Alvarez K.,Laboratorio Of Higado | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-α (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = -0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. © 2013 Leon-Cabrera, Solís-Lozano, Suárez-Álvarez, González-Chávez, Béjar, Robles-Díaz and Escobedo. Source

Schmulson M.,Laboratorio Of Higado | Bielsa M.V.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Carmona-Sanchez R.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Hernandez A.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia | And 6 more authors.
Revista de Gastroenterologia de Mexico | Year: 2014

Background: Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) prevalence, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), altered microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and antibiotic therapy in IBS are all controversial issues. Aims: To conduct an evidence-based review of these factors.Methods: A review of the literature was carried out up to July 2012, with the inclusion of additional articles as far as August 2013, all of which were analyzed through the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) system.Results: 1. There is greater SIBO probability in IBS when breath tests are performed, but prevalence varies widely (2-84%). 2. The gut microbiota in individuals with IBS is different from that in healthy subjects, but a common characteristic present in all the patients has not been established. 3. The incidence and prevalence of PI-IBS varies from 9-10% and 3-17%, respectively, and the latter decreases over time. Bacterial etiology is the most frequent but post-viral and parasitic cases have been reported. 4. A sub-group of patients has increased enterochromaffin cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, and mast cells in the intestinal mucosa, but no differences between PI-IBS and non-PI-IBS have been determined. 5. Methanogenic microbiota has been associated with IBS with constipation. 6. Rifaximin at doses of 400 mg TID/10 days or 550 mg TID/14 days is effective treatment for the majority of overall symptoms and abdominal bloating in IBS. Retreatment effectiveness appears to be similar to that of the first cycle.Conclusions: Further studies are required to determine the nature of the gut microbiota in IBS and the differences in low-grade inflammation between PI-IBS and non-PI-IBS. Rifaximin has shown itself to be effective treatment for IBS, regardless of prior factors. © 2013 Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. Source

Duarte-Rojo A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Sosa-Lozano L.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Saul A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Herrera-Caceres J.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | And 3 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Background Obesity increases the risk for severe acute pancreatitis, although abdominal obesity may be a better prognostic marker. Aim To determine if a single anthropometric parameter best predicts severe acute pancreatitis and correlates with intra-abdominal fat. Methods Ninety-nine patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively. Anthropometry included body mass index (BMI) and girths (umbilical/minimum waist, iliac/trochanter hip, thigh). Several waist-to-hip/waist-to-thigh ratios (WHR/WTR) were constructed. A CT-scan with calculation of cross-sectional abdominal fat areas was obtained in 37 cases. Results Severe acute pancreatitis occurred in 25 patients. Waist circumference (WC), WHR and WTR - all using the umbilical reference - most accurately predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Only umbilical WC was retained in multivariate analysis: the risk for severe acute pancreatitis increased 16% with every 1 cm (OR 1.16, 95%CI: 1.1-1.3). Abdominal obesity caused a 6-fold increase in risk. Umbilical WC correlated best with subcutaneous fat area (r = 0.791, P < 0.001), whereas WHR with intra-abdominal (r = 0.594, P < 0.001). Conclusions Abdominal obesity according to umbilical WC is a better predictor for development of severe acute pancreatitis than BMI, minimum WC, WHR and WTR. The protocol for anthropometry must be standardized as it may affect results. Both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat appears to affect the likelihood of a severe outcome. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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