Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental

Mexico City, Mexico

Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental

Mexico City, Mexico

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Garcia-Garcia P.L.,Institute Ecologia | Martinez-Jeronimo F.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental | Vazquez G.,Institute Ecologia | Favila M.E.,Institute Ecologia | Novelo-Gutierrez R.,Institute Ecologia
Hidrobiologica | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the effect of water quality of streams from micro-watersheds with different land use (cloud forest, coffee plantation, pasture and under urban influence) during the dry and rainy seasons, lying within the upper watershed of the La Antigua river in Veracruz, Mexico. Water characteristics were measured and laboratory subchronic toxicity tests were performed to evaluate average accumulated progeny, broods per female, and non-reproductive females of Ceriodaphnia dubia. The cloud forest contained chemically undisturbed streams, while the lowest levels of chemical alteration were detected in pasture streams: low fecundity of C. dubia was observed in both types of streams. The most disturbed streams were those associated with coffee plantations and under urban influence, which resulted in enhanced C. dubia fecundity; however, the highest chemical disturbance, found in a stream with urban influence, led to reproduction suppression in the dry season. The most favorable conditions for reproduction were provided by nutrient and probably organic enrichment in streams associated with urban environments and coffee plantations, while in cloud forest and pasture streams, the natural, and close to natural water chemistry caused a reduction in fecundity. Female fecundity was higher during the rainy season.


Olvera-Ramirez R.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Vegetal | Centeno-Ramos C.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Vegetal | Martinez-Jeronimo F.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Hidrobiologica | Year: 2010

Some cyanobacteria can produce toxins that affect the aquatic biota and represent a human health risk. The cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena tenuis was isolated from the Valle de Bravo dam, and cultured in the laboratory under controlled conditions. We determined the acute toxic effects and performed a chronic (consumption) test in the cladocerans Daphnia magna (a reference test organism) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (a cosmopolitan species). To determine acute toxicity, three exposure ways were assayed: a) cell-free culture medium, b) crude cell extracts of the cyanobacterium after lysing, and c) aqueous extracts of P. tenuis phycobiliproteins. On the other hand, both cladocerans were fed P. tenuis, assessing the effects on survival and reproduction. For comparison, a control culture of both cladocerans was fed the green microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Exposure to the cell-free culture medium did not produce any mortality in either cladoceran, but the aqueous and crude extracts generated acute toxicity. D. magna and C. dubia were negatively affected when fed P. tenuis, since their survival, total progeny, average number of neonates per clutch, and the number of clutches decreased. C. dubia was more sensitive than D. magna, both in the acute toxicity tests and to the effects of P. tenuis consumption. Although most of the blooms around the world are dominated by cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis, attention should be given to other species, such as P. tenuis, because, frequently, it is not recognized that smaller cyanobacteria could exceed the larger species in terms of biomass, and produce noxious biological effects.


Daphnia magna is a cladoceran used as a model organism in aquatic ecology and ecotoxicology studies. Because growth is a critical parameter to study the effect of environmental conditions on the development of zooplankters, the somatic growth of D. magna was measured here and described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation (VBGE), a mathematical model widely used in fisheries management. For this purpose, the effect of two temperatures (20 and 25°C) and two photoperiod conditions (12:12 and 16:8, light:dark) was assayed. Experiments began with neonate females and were finished when parthenogenetic females reached the age of 41 days; they were fed the microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus (400,000 cell ml -1, 12 mg l -1, dry weight). According to the VBGE, maximal length (L max) was inversely correlated with the growth rate (K). The highest L max (6.45 mm) was for the females grown at 20°C with the 12:12 photoperiod, whereas the maximum growth rate (K = 0.182 ± 0.010) was for individuals grown at 25°C with the 12:12 photoperiod. The number of clutches during the studied period was significantly higher for females grown at 25°C, 12:12. Temperature affected the growth rate and the maximum size in D. magna; interaction of temperature with photoperiod was also noteworthy. The VBGE was a nifty way to assess the effects of the tested environmental factors. © 2011 The Japanese Society of Limnology.


Alberto A.-C.M.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental | Rocio O.-B.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Humana | Fernando M.-J.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

It has been accepted that for most species newborns and senescent organisms are more sensitive than other ages to environmental stressors. Nevertheless, it must be considered that there are several biochemical and physiological compensatory processes which are not expressed with the same magnitude during the whole life cycle. With this aim, Daphnia magna individuals of different age were exposed to hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI), at two different sublethal concentrations (0.032 and 0.0064 mg l-1), and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated during most of the life cycle of this cladoceran. The antioxidant enzymatic activity showed an inverse relationship with respect to age. The activity of CAT, GR and GPx were increased in the two treated groups, at all life stages tested. On the other hand, the activity of SOD decreased in the same groups. Both, increase and decrease in the antioxidant enzymatic activities, showed significant differences with respect to the control group, being higher for the 0.032 mg l-1 group. The Cr (VI) LC50 was also estimated for these age groups, finding statistical differences among them. Even though adults exhibited higher responses, these enzymatic activity changes should not be interpreted as higher sensitivity, since the daphnids acute chromium toxicity followed a different pattern, with increasing LC50 values according to age. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises Vikas Nagar, Lucknow, INDIA.


Martinez-Jeronimo F.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental | Ventura-Lopez C.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

The knowledge of population effects of food on tropical, filter-feeding cladocerans is scarce because a reduced number of species has been extensively studied. Ceriodaphnia rigaudi Richard 1894, a small-sized cladoceran distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, was studied. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the reproductive biology of a poor-known Cladoceran; for this we assessed the effect of feeding and temperature on the reproduction and life cycle of this species. Three microalga species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and Chlorella vulgaris) were supplied as food each at a concentration of 12 mg l-1 (dry weight, equivalent to 1.3X106, 0.4X106 and 1.35X106 cell ml-1, respectively, and equivalent to 7.80 μg C ml-1), at two temperatures (20 and 25°C). We evaluated, among other responses, longevity, total progeny survival, life expectancy at birth and fecundity. Organisms fed with the microalgae A falcatus and P. subcapitata presented both higher longevity (30.7± 5.91, 26.6 ± 3.59 days, respectively) and total progeny (45 ± 13.80, 40.7 ± 0.66 neonates female-1) values than those organisms fed C. vulgaris (13.5± 4.63 days and 17.6 ± 6.19 neonates female-1, respectively). On the other hand, temperature affected significantly the population parameters of C. rigaudi, recording maximal longevity values (56.1 ± 9.41 days) at 20°C in organisms fed A falcatus; however, age at first reproduction and total progeny were negatively affected by this temperature: sexual maturation of the females was delayed until the age of 16 days and the number of neonates produced was smaller (9.8 ± 3.45 with C. vulgaris; 24.7±6.01 with P. subcapitata, and 35.5 ± 8.59 neonates female-1 with A falcatus). The best reproductive responses for C. rigaudi in this study were obtained with A falcatus at 25oC. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises Vikas Nagar, Lucknow, INDIA.


Martinez-Jeronimo F.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental | Gomez-Diaz P.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Crustaceana | Year: 2011

The family Chydoridae comprises a group of organisms that is relevant in an ecological sense, representing more than 40% of the total number of species of Cladocera recorded in Mexico until now. Leydigia louisi mexicana is a chydorid recently described in the "Los Baños" water reservoir (disappeared by now), located on the Central Mexican High Plateau. Scarce information exists on the maintenance and culture of Chydoridae in the laboratory in general, and on the reproductive biology of this species in particular. Therefore, the present work aimed at establishing the adequate conditions for the growth and reproduction of the species in the laboratory as a conservation strategy, considering that the type locality does no longer exist and the current distribution of this species is most restricted in Mexico. To this end, we experimentally studied the life cycle of L. louisi mexicana by developing a culture procedure in which we assessed three factors: food (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), type of substrate (commercial soil and artificial sediment), and temperature (20 and 25°C). Experiments were performed through individual assessment of reproductive responses, and by life table analysis. The highest longevity (52.70 ± 2.16 d) was observed in organisms fed S. cerevisiae, on artificial sediment, at 20°C. The highest fecundity (22.3 ± 0.86 neonates), the largest number of clutches (14 ± 0.52), and the highest intrinsic rate of population growth (r = 0.19 ± 0.007 d-1) were recorded in organisms fed with S. cerevisiae, on artificial sediment, at 25°C. The shortest generation time (T = 18.15 ± 0.59 d) was recorded when L. louisi mexicana was fed P. subcapitata, on artificial sediment, at 25°C. The best reproductive responses were obtained when L. louisi mexicana was fed S. cerevisiae, on artificial sediment. The procedure developed provides fundamental biological information, and could be an option for the maintenance and propagation of other chydorids. © 2011 BRILL.


Arzate-Cardenas M.A.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental | Martinez-Jeronimo F.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011

Daphnia schodleri is a naturally occurring cladoceran in Mexican freshwater bodies and its relative big size and short life cycle allow its use in toxicological bioassays. Generally, life stages at opposite sides of a normal distribution are considered to be the most susceptible and/or sensitive because of several sub-individual level processes, such as ageing, in which antioxidant activity decreases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) cannot be totally neutralized. Most aquatic populations are structured by organisms of different ages, in which physiological and biochemical responses differ (in magnitude) from each other. According to these statements, seven age groups of D. schodleri (0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d) were exposed to Cr (VI) in both acute and non-lethal bioassays. Results from acute bioassays were used to estimate the chromium LC 50 values for every age group, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.61mgL -1, with a normal pattern distribution. Antioxidant enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) was assessed in organisms exposed to two sublethal Cr(VI) concentrations (0.032 and 0.0064mgL -1). Results showed that neonates' antioxidant activity increased with respect to their controls; nevertheless, the same pattern was not seen in the other age groups. Moreover, GPx activities followed a decreasing pattern with respect to their control groups in organisms 3-d and older. In addition, GR activities were barely modified by chromium exposure of neonates, but not in the other age groups; CAT was only modified in younger daphnids. Once the biomarker responses were normalized, it was possible to observe that enzyme participation differed during the life cycle of this cladoceran and, as a result of their decreasing antioxidant activity, relatively old organisms could have lower capability to deal with pro-oxidant toxicants such as Cr(VI). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Figueroa-Lucero G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Hernandez-Rubio M.C.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental | Gutierrez-Ladron de Guevara M.J.,Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambiental | Year: 2012

The prawn shrimp Macrobrachium tenellum is a potential species for culture in México. The effect of ammonia on larvae was evaluated to provide basic information on safe levels for larviculture. A 72 h static assay was performed on 5 days old M. tenellum larvae. The nominal concentrations tested ranged from 2.89 to 185.48 mg NH4-N/L which represent 0.103 to 6.585 mg NH3-N/L at 20 g/L salinity, 28 oC and pH 7.79. LC50 for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h were 2.939 ± 0.505, 0.749 ± 0.301, 0.477 ± 0.163 and 0.409 ± 0.068 mg NH3-N/L, respectively. These results suggest that M. tenellum exhibits a slightly higher tolerance to ammonia in the zoea stage when compared to most of the prawn and shrimp species.


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2011

Daphnia schodleri is a naturally occurring cladoceran in Mexican freshwater bodies and its relative big size and short life cycle allow its use in toxicological bioassays. Generally, life stages at opposite sides of a normal distribution are considered to be the most susceptible and/or sensitive because of several sub-individual level processes, such as ageing, in which antioxidant activity decreases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) cannot be totally neutralized. Most aquatic populations are structured by organisms of different ages, in which physiological and biochemical responses differ (in magnitude) from each other. According to these statements, seven age groups of D. schodleri (0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d) were exposed to Cr (VI) in both acute and non-lethal bioassays. Results from acute bioassays were used to estimate the chromium LC(50) values for every age group, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.61 mg L(-1), with a normal pattern distribution. Antioxidant enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) was assessed in organisms exposed to two sublethal Cr(VI) concentrations (0.032 and 0.0064 mg L(-1)). Results showed that neonates antioxidant activity increased with respect to their controls; nevertheless, the same pattern was not seen in the other age groups. Moreover, GPx activities followed a decreasing pattern with respect to their control groups in organisms 3-d and older. In addition, GR activities were barely modified by chromium exposure of neonates, but not in the other age groups; CAT was only modified in younger daphnids. Once the biomarker responses were normalized, it was possible to observe that enzyme participation differed during the life cycle of this cladoceran and, as a result of their decreasing antioxidant activity, relatively old organisms could have lower capability to deal with pro-oxidant toxicants such as Cr(VI).


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Hidrobiologia Experimental
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental biology | Year: 2012

It has been accepted that for most species newborns and senescent organisms are more sensitive than other ages to environmental stressors. Nevertheless, it must be considered that there are several biochemical and physiological compensatory processes which are not expressed with the same magnitude during the whole life cycle. With this aim, Daphnia magna individuals of different age were exposed to hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI), at two different sublethal concentrations (0.032 and 0.0064 mg l(-1)), and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated during most of the life cycle of this cladoceran. The antioxidant enzymatic activity showed an inverse relationship with respect to age. The activity of CAT, GR and GPx were increased in the two treated groups, at all life stages tested. On the other hand, the activity of SOD decreased in the same groups. Both, increase and decrease in the antioxidant enzymatic activities, showed significant differences with respect to the control group, being higher for the 0.032 mg l(-1) group. The Cr (VI) LC50 was also estimated for these age groups, finding statistical differences among them. Even though adults exhibited higher responses, these enzymatic activity changes should not be interpreted as higher sensitivity, since the daphnids acute chromium toxicity followed a different pattern, with increasing LC50 values according to age.

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