Remotti L.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R Castex |
Grosso S.H.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R Castex |
Ingratti M.F.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R Castex |
Morandini M.P.V.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R Castex |
And 6 more authors.
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana | Year: 2016
Acquired inhibitors are rare disorders. They are associated with different clinical behaviours and significant morbi-mortality. Detection is important in order to start treatment urgently. There are either specific inhibitors, which block function, against all coagulation factors, and VWF, or with interference effects, on one or more coagulation pathways. Specific inhibitors are either allo-antibodies developed in deficient patients, which give rise to therapeutic complication; or auto-antibodies, which are present in individuals without previous defects. There are specific antibodies that can affect clearance but which cannot block the function. Inhibitors with interference effects are immunoglobulins or other substances (heparin/heparinoids, FDP/fdp, PIVKAS, abnormal molecules, etc.) associated with different clinical settings (asymptomatic, bleeding, thrombosis and/or obstetric complications). Laboratory results are fundamental for the diagnosis. Global tests are able to detect the defect, which is not corrected by the addition of normal plasma; the type of inhibitor is then characterized and titration of the inhibitor is eventually performed. This is complex; there is variability in the results and there is likelihood of false positive or negative results; moreover, the tests are not strictly specific. Diagnostic algorithms are useful tools but they do not consider combined defects. It is a critical point to characterize the inhibitor and exclude possible interferences or concomitant defects; this demands application of the correct tests without misinterpretations.