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Leffa D.D.,University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina | Damiani A.P.,University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina | Da Silva J.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Zocche J.J.,University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Coal mining is an activity with a high potential for environmental pollution. Coal has been described as the most significant pollutant of all the fossil fuels, containing a heterogeneous mixture. Many elements present in coal byproducts as well as coal tailings are rich in potentially toxic and genotoxic metals, which ultimately lead to profound changes in cells, tissues, populations, and ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the mineral coal tailings using the land snail Helix aspersa. Animals were divided in three groups, clustered in plexiglass cages: control (animals fed with organic lettuce), coal tailings (animals living in a layer of pyrite tailings and fed with organic lettuce), and mine lettuce (animals fed with lettuce grown in an area located in a deposit of coal tailings). The hemolymph was collected at different exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 1 month) for comet assay analyses. Results showed that the animals of the coal tailings and mine lettuce groups presented higher levels of DNA damage in relation to the control group at all exposure times, but with a peak of DNA damage in 48 h and 96 h. These results demonstrate that the coal pyrite tailings are potentially genotoxic and that H. aspersa has proven to be a sensitive instrument for a better risk assessment of environmental pollution. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Da Costa E Silva L.D.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Rodrigues L.C.L.V.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Dos Santos V.R.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Da Costa Allgayer M.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 4 more authors.
Life Sciences

Aim Lobeline is a natural alkaloid derived from Lobelia inflata that has been investigated as a clinical candidate for the treatment of alcoholism. In a pre-clinical trial, lobeline decreased the preference for and consumption of ethanol, due to the modulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. However, the interaction between lobeline and ethanol is poorly known and thus there are safety concerns. The present study was conducted to evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of lobeline and assess its modulation of ethanol-induced toxicological effects. Main methods CF-1 male mice were divided into five groups. Groups received an intraperitoneal injection of saline solution, lobeline (5 or 10 mg/kg), ethanol (2.5 g/kg), or lobeline plus ethanol, once a day for three consecutive days. Genotoxicity was evaluated in peripheral blood using the alkaline comet assay. The mutagenicity was evaluated using both Salmonella/microsome assay in TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102 Salmonella typhimurium strains and the micronucleus test in bone marrow. Possible liver and kidney injuries were evaluated using biochemical analysis. Key findings Lobeline did not show genotoxic or mutagenic effects and did not increase the ethanol-induced genotoxic effects in blood. Lobeline also protected blood cells against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. Biochemical parameters were not altered, indicating no liver or kidney injuries or alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Significance These findings suggest that lobeline does not induce gene or chromosomal mutations, and that this lack of genetic toxicity is maintained in the presence of ethanol, providing further evidence of the safety of this drug to treat alcohol dependence. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Villar S.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Kandratavicius N.,Institute Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales | Martinez S.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Muniz P.,Institute Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales
Brazilian Journal of Oceanography

The knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area) and Laguna Garzón (control) to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages. © 2015, Universidade de Sao Paulo. All Rights Reserved. Source

da Silveira K.C.S.,Federal University of Health Sciences, Porto Alegre | da Silveira K.C.S.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Viau C.M.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Viau C.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Translacional Em Saude E Ambiente Na Regiao Amazonica | And 7 more authors.
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia

Background – Renal failure is a frequent and serious complication in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Objective – We aimed to evaluate the renal oxidative stress, cell damage and impaired cell function in animal model of cirrhosis. Methods – Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced in rats by ligation of the common bile duct. We measured TBARS, ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential in kidney as markers of oxidative stress, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Relative cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye-exclusion assay. Annexin V-PE was used with a vital dye, 7-AAD, to distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells and comet assay was used for determined DNA integrity in single cells. Results – In bile duct ligation animals there was significant increase in the kidney lipoperoxidation and an increase of the level of intracellular ROS. There was too an increase in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes evaluated in the kidney. The percentage viability was above 90% in the control group and in bile duct ligation was 64.66% and the dominant cell death type was apoptosis. DNA damage was observed in the bile duct ligation. There was a decreased in the mitochondrial membrane potential from 71.40% ± 6.35% to 34.48% ± 11.40% in bile duct ligation. Conclusion – These results indicate that intracellular increase of ROS cause damage in the DNA and apoptosis getting worse the renal function in cirrhosis. © 2015, IBEPEGE - Inst. Bras. Estudos Pesquisas Gastroent. All rights received. Source

Moraes E Luz E.W.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Vieira L.R.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Semedo J.G.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Toxicologica | Bona S.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 5 more authors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

L-Carnitine, a natural vitamin-like compound supplied to the body by biosynthesis and dietary sources, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in disorders affecting cardiovascular, urinary, and nervous systems. However, the paucity of data on its effects does not guarantee the safe use of L-carnitine as a nutritional supplement, and further pre-clinical studies are required to assess toxicological aspects. The present study evaluated the effects of L-carnitine (10, 50 or, 100 mg/kg) inmice, in the open field test. Also, lipoperoxidation was assessed measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and genotoxic/antigenotoxic activities were evaluated using the comet assay in several tissues. L-Carnitine 50 mg/kg impaired exploration, though with no effects on habituation to a novel environment. L-Carnitine increased TBARS in the brain and liver tissues, but it did not induce genotoxicity in any tissue. In ex vivo comet assay, a decrease inDNA damage in the blood and liver tissueswas observed,while the opposite occurred in the brain tissue. In conclusion, L-carnitinemay increase lipid peroxidation, though without inducing genotoxic effects, protect DNA against endogenous and induced oxidative damages in blood and liver; however, L-carnitine impaired exploratory behavior and increased the vulnerability of the brain tissue to oxidative stress, suggesting that the excessive consumption of L-carnitine may promote deleterious effects on the central nervous system. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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