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Gomez-Perez L.,University of the Basque Country | Alfonso-Sanchez M.A.,University of the Basque Country | Dipierri J.E.,National University of Jujuy | Sanchez D.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2013

Objectives: Genetic heterogeneity of two Amerindian populations (Jujuy province, Argentina, and Waorani tribe, Ecuador) was characterized by analyzing data on polymorphic Alu insertions within the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region (6p21.31), which are completely nonexistent in Native Americans. We further evaluated the haplotype distribution and genetic diversity among continental ancestry groups and their potential implications for the dating of the origin of MHC-Alus. Methods: Five MHC-Alu elements (AluMicB, AluTF, AluHJ, AluHG, and AluHF) were typed in samples from Jujuy (N=108) and Waorani (N=36). Allele and haplotype frequency data on worldwide populations were compiled to explore spatial structuring of the MHC-Alu diversity through AMOVA tests. We utilized the median-joining network approach to illustrate the continental distribution of the MHC-Alu haplotypes and their phylogenetic relationships. Results: Allele and haplotype distributions differed significantly between Jujuy and Waorani. The Waorani featured a low average heterozygosity attributable to strong population isolation. Overall, Alu markers showed great genetic heterogeneity both within and among populations. The haplotype distribution was distinctive of each continental ancestry group. Contrary to expectations, Africans showed the lowest MHC-Alu diversity. Conclusions: Genetic drift mainly associated to population bottlenecks seems to be reflected in the low MHC-Alu diversity of the Amerindians, mainly in Waorani. Geographical structuring of the haplotype distribution supports the efficiency of the MHC-Alu loci as lineage (ancestry) markers. The markedly low Alu diversity of African populations relative to other continental clusters suggests that these MHC-Alus might have arisen after the anatomically modern humans expanded out of Africa. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Dias E.S.,Hospital Materno Infantil Presidente Vargas | Bittelbrunn A.C.,Servico de Mastologia | Leistner-Segal S.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular
Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Certain mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are frequent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Several factors contribute to this increased frequency, including consanguineous marriages and an event known as a "bottleneck", which occurred in the past and caused a drastic reduction in the genetic variability of this population. Several studies were performed over the years in an attempt to elucidate the role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in susceptibility to breast cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the carrier frequency of certain common mutations in theBRCA1 (185delAG and 5382insC) and BRCA2 (6174delT) genes in an Ashkenazi Jewish population from Porto Alegre, Brazil. Molecular analyses were done by PCR followed by RFLP (ACRS). The carrier frequencies for BRCA1 185delAG and 5382insC were 0.78 and 0 respectively, and 0.4 for theBRCA2 6174deT mutation. These findings are similar to those of some prior studies but differ from others, possibly due to excluding individuals with a personal or family history of cancer. Our sample was drawn from the community group and included individuals with or without a family or personal history of cancer. Furthermore, increased dispersion among Ashkenazi subpopulations may be the result of strong genetic drift and/or admixture. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects of local admixture on the mismatch distributions of various Jewish populations. © 2012, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética. Printed in Brazil. Source

Cardoso S.,University of the Basque Country | Alfonso-Sanchez M.A.,University of the Basque Country | Valverde L.,University of the Basque Country | Sanchez D.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | And 4 more authors.
Heredity | Year: 2012

South America and especially the Amazon basin is known to be home to some of the most isolated human groups in the world. Here, we report on a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the Waorani from Ecuador, probably the most warlike human population known to date. Seeking to look in more depth at the characterization of the genetic diversity of this Native American tribe, molecular markers from the X and Y chromosomes were also analyzed. Only three different mtDNA haplotypes were detected among the Waorani sample. One of them, assigned to Native American haplogroup A2, accounted for more than 94% of the total diversity of the maternal gene pool. Our results for sex chromosome molecular markers failed to find close genetic kinship between individuals, further emphasizing the low genetic diversity of the mtDNA. Bearing in mind the results obtained for both the analysis of the mtDNA control region and complete mitochondrial genomes, we suggest the existence of a 'Waorani-specific' mtDNA lineage. According to current knowledge on the phylogeny of haplogroup A2, we propose that this lineage could be designated as subhaplogroup A2s. Its wide predominance among the Waorani people might have been conditioned by severe genetic drift episodes resulting from founding events, long-term isolation and a traditionally small population size most likely associated with the striking ethnography of this Amazonian community. In all, the Waorani constitute a fine example of how genetic imprint may mirror ethnopsychology and sociocultural features in human populations. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Celorrio D.,University of the Basque Country | Bujanda L.,University of the Basque Country | Chbel F.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Sanchez D.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | And 2 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2011

Background: Genes ADH1B and ADH1C have certain functional SNPs that are related to alcoholism. The frequencies of these polymorphisms vary between populations, so studying them in populations made up of groups with different phylogeographic origins requires an individualized analysis of each group. In the Basque Country, various recently arrived foreign groups live side by side with the original Southern European population, particularly North Africans from Morocco and Hispanics from Ecuador. This study sets out to examine the distribution of the frequencies of alleles that encode alcohol dehydrogenase with different metabolization rates, as higher rates make for greater susceptibility to alcoholism. Methods: Four SNPs: rs1229984, rs2066702, rs698, and rs1693482 using Taqman technology with a Rt-PCR were studied in a sample of 114 European individuals originating from the Basque Country, 100 North Africans from Morocco, and 109 Hispanics from Ecuador. The allele and genotype frequencies were calculated using Genepop v4.0. The most frequent haplotypes were estimated using the ELB algorithm with Arlequin v3.01. A breakdown of the complete disequilibrium commonly observed between the 2 missense polymorphisms that distinguish the common ADH1C alleles rs698 and rs1693482 was observed and confirmed by sequencing in 2 individuals from the Basque Country. Results: A higher frequency of protective allele ADH1C *1 was found in the North African population group. Haplotype combinations are also studied, and the rare association of alleles ADH1B *2-ADH1C *2 was observed in the Southern European group in the Basque Country, along with an allele not hitherto described in the ADH1C locus. Conclusions: This study provides the first data published on the allele and genotype frequencies of the ADH1C locus in the Moroccan population and on the ADH1B and ADH1C loci in the Ecuadorian population. The study shows differences in the distribution of the frequency of allele ADH1C *1 between the Basque Country and Moroccan populations, and a new allele not described to date. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism. Source

Gomez-Perez L.,University of the Basque Country | Alfonso-Sanchez M.A.,University of the Basque Country | Sanchez D.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | Garcia-Obregon S.,University of the Basque Country | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2011

Objectives:: The Amazon basin is inhabited by some of the most isolated human groups worldwide. Among them, the Waorani tribe is one of the most interesting Native American populations from the anthropological perspective. This study reports a genetic characterization of the Waorani based on autosomal genetic loci. Methods:: We analyzed 12 polymorphic Alu insertions in 36 Waorani individuals from different communal longhouses settled in the Yasuní National Park. Results:: The most notable finding was the strikingly reduced genetic diversity detected in the Waorani, corroborated by the existence of four monomorphic loci (ACE, APO, FXIIIB, and HS4.65), and of other four Alu markers that were very close to the fixation for the presence (PV92 and D1) or the absence (A25 and HS4.32) of the insertion. Furthermore, results of the centroid analysis supported the notion of the Waorani being one of the Amerindian groups less impacted by gene flow processes. Conclusions:: The prolonged isolation of the Waorani community, in conjunction with a historically low effective population size and high inbreeding levels, have resulted in the drastic reduction of their genetic diversity, because of the effects of severe genetic drift. Recurrent population bottlenecks most likely determined by certain deep-rooted sociocultural practices of the Waorani (characterized by violence, internal quarrels, and revenge killings until recent times) are likely responsible for this pattern of diversity. The findings of this study illustrate how sociocultural factors can shape the gene pool of human populations. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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