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Denoeud F.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Denoeud F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Denoeud F.,DeVry University | Carretero-Paulet L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 68 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Coffee is a valuable beverage crop due to its characteristic flavor, aroma, and the stimulating effects of caffeine. We generated a high-quality draft genome of the species Coffea canephora, which displays a conserved chromosomal gene order among asterid angiosperms. Although it shows no sign of the whole-genome triplication identified in Solanaceae species such as tomato, the genome includes several species-specific gene family expansions, among them N-methyltransferases (NMTs) involved in caffeine production, defense-related genes, and alkaloid and flavonoid enzymes involved in secondary compound synthesis. Comparative analyses of caffeine NMTs demonstrate that these genes expanded through sequential tandem duplications independently of genes from cacao and tea, suggesting that caffeine in eudicots is of polyphyletic origin. © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, Bioversity International, University of Ottawa, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Institute and 16 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2014

Coffee is a valuable beverage crop due to its characteristic flavor, aroma, and the stimulating effects of caffeine. We generated a high-quality draft genome of the species Coffea canephora, which displays a conserved chromosomal gene order among asterid angiosperms. Although it shows no sign of the whole-genome triplication identified in Solanaceae species such as tomato, the genome includes several species-specific gene family expansions, among them N-methyltransferases (NMTs) involved in caffeine production, defense-related genes, and alkaloid and flavonoid enzymes involved in secondary compound synthesis. Comparative analyses of caffeine NMTs demonstrate that these genes expanded through sequential tandem duplications independently of genes from cacao and tea, suggesting that caffeine in eudicots is of polyphyletic origin.


Nunez B.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martinez De Mena R.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Obregon M.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Font-Llitjos M.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Thyroid hormone entry into cells is facilitated by transmembrane transporters. Mutations of the specific thyroid hormone transporter, MCT8 (Monocarboxylate Transporter 8, SLC16A2) cause an X-linked syndrome of profound neurological impairment and altered thyroid function known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. MCT8 deficiency presumably results in failure of thyroid hormone to reach the neural target cells in adequate amounts to sustain normal brain development. However during the perinatal period the absence of Mct8 in mice induces a state of cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism, indicating increased brain access and/or retention of thyroid hormone. The contribution of other transporters to thyroid hormone metabolism and action, especially in the context of MCT8 deficiency is not clear. We have analyzed the role of the heterodimeric aminoacid transporter Lat2 (Slc7a8), in the presence or absence of Mct8, on thyroid hormone concentrations and on expression of thyroid hormone-dependent cerebral cortex genes. To this end we generated Lat2 -/-, and Mct8-/yLat2-/- mice, to compare with wild type and Mct8-/y mice during postnatal development. As described previously the single Mct8 KO neonates had a transient increase of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine concentration and expression of thyroid hormone target genes in the cerebral cortex. Strikingly the absence of Lat2 in the double Mct8Lat2 KO prevented the effect of Mct8 inactivation in newborns. The Lat2 effect was not observed from postnatal day 5 onwards. On postnatal day 21 the Mct8 KO displayed the typical pattern of thyroid hormone concentrations in plasma, decreased cortex 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine concentration and Hr expression, and concomitant Lat2 inactivation produced little to no modifications. As Lat2 is expressed in neurons and in the choroid plexus, the results support a role for Lat2 in the supply of thyroid hormone to the cerebral cortex during early postnatal development. © 2014 Núñez et al.


Gorostiza A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gorostiza A.,Laboratorio Of Identificacion Genetica | Acunha-Alonzo V.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | Regalado-Liu L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The study of genetic information can reveal a reconstruction of human population's history. We sequenced the entire mtDNA control region (positions 16.024 to 576 following Cambridge Reference Sequence, CRS) of 605 individuals from seven Mesoamerican indigenous groups and one Aridoamerican from the Greater Southwest previously defined, all of them in present Mexico. Samples were collected directly from the indigenous populations, the application of an individual survey made it possible to remove related or with other origins samples. Diversity indices and demographic estimates were calculated. Also AMOVAs were calculated according to different criteria. An MDS plot, based on FST distances, was also built. We carried out the construction of individual networks for the four Amerindian haplogroups detected. Finally, barrier software was applied to detect genetic boundaries among populations. The results suggest: a common origin of the indigenous groups; a small degree of European admixture; and inter-ethnic gene flow. The process of Mesoamerica's human settlement took place quickly influenced by the region's orography, which development of genetic and cultural differences facilitated. We find the existence of genetic structure is related to the region's geography, rather than to cultural parameters, such as language. The human population gradually became fragmented, though they remained relatively isolated, and differentiated due to small population sizes and different survival strategies. Genetic differences were detected between Aridoamerica and Mesoamerica, which can be subdivided into "East", "Center", "West" and "Southeast". The fragmentation process occurred mainly during the Mesoamerican Pre-Classic period, with the Otomí being one of the oldest groups. With an increased number of populations studied adding previously published data, there is no change in the conclusions, although significant genetic heterogeneity can be detected in Pima and Huichol groups. This result may be explained because populations historically assigned as belonging to the same group were, in fact, different indigenous populations. © 2012 Gorostiza et al.


PubMed | Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Roslin Institute, University of Tarapacá and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2016

We report a genome-wide association scan for facial features in 6,000 Latin Americans. We evaluated 14 traits on an ordinal scale and found significant association (P values<5 10(-8)) at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genomic regions for three nose-related traits: columella inclination (4q31), nose bridge breadth (6p21) and nose wing breadth (7p13 and 20p11). In a subsample of 3,000 individuals we obtained quantitative traits related to 9 of the ordinal phenotypes and, also, a measure of nasion position. Quantitative analyses confirmed the ordinal-based associations, identified SNPs in 2q12 associated to chin protrusion, and replicated the reported association of nasion position with SNPs in PAX3. Strongest association in 2q12, 4q31, 6p21 and 7p13 was observed for SNPs in the EDAR, DCHS2, RUNX2 and GLI3 genes, respectively. Associated SNPs in 20p11 extend to PAX1. Consistent with the effect of EDAR on chin protrusion, we documented alterations of mandible length in mice with modified Edar funtion.


PubMed | Hospital Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular and Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gaceta medica de Mexico | Year: 2016

Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes characterized by presence of IgG antibodies against desmoglein 3, and 1. Desmoglein 3 and 1 are presented in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceous, respectively. Desmoglein are transmembrane proteins that form part of cellular junctions called desmosomes. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules have been related to autoimmune disease; in pemphigus vulgaris, different human lymphocyte antigens (HLA) were associated among different ethnic groups, such as HLA-DR4, HLA-DR14, and HLA-DR1.to determine the allele HLA-DR genetic frequencies in Mexican patients with pemphigus.Patients with clinical, histological, and immunofluorescence diagnosis monitored at the Dermatology Department of the Mexican General Hospital were included. DNA was extracted from blood samples and genetic recognition of HLA-DR1 was performed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization. Forty-three patients with pemphigus were included: 35 (81.4%) women and eight men (18.6%) between 16 and 85 years old.The HLA-DR14 and HLA-DR1 genetic frequencies were elevated among pemphigus patients and these alleles confer risk to pemphigus 2.2 and 3.3, respectively.These findings suggest that pemphigus vulgaris susceptibility is part of a general predisposition to present autoimmune diseases.


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular and University of the Americas in Ecuador
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council | Year: 2016

Lactase persistence (LP) is an adaptive trait that certain human populations have acquired in response to lactose consumption in adulthood. The T-13910 variant has been reported as a causal polymorphism in Europeans. The Ecuadorian population has been described as multicultural and multiethnic, comprised of three main ethnic groups (Mestizo, Native Amerindian, and Afro-Ecuadorian). The aim of the study was to identify the molecular basis of LP in these admixed populations for the first time and determine the association between the T-13910 marker and the European ancestry proportion of each ethnic group.Genotyping was performed in 741 Ecuadorian individuals by sequencing a 576 bp region around the -13910 position upstream of the LCT gene. The ancestry proportions of Mestizo, Afro-Ecuadorian, and Native Amerindians were calculated using Ancestry Informative Markers and were compared with the diversity panel of the Human Genome Diversity Project.LP prevalence calculated from T-13910 allele frequency in Mestizo, Afro-Ecuadorian, and Native Amerindians was 24.4%, 16%, and 12.5%, respectively. The ancestry percentage correlated to the admixture proportion of each ethnic group, and the C/T-13910 genotype frequency was influenced by the European ancestry proportion.The presence of the T-13910 polymorphism in the Ecuadorian population suggested that LP was a trait introduced by European migration and inherited by admixture that occurred during the colonization of South America. This variant was not fixed in a population with a history of admixture, and its allele frequency was proportional to the ancestry proportion of each Ecuadorian ethnic group. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:774-781, 2016. 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Herzberg I.,University College London | Valencia-Duarte A.V.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | Kay V.A.,University College London | White D.J.,University College London | And 10 more authors.
Psychiatric Genetics | Year: 2010

Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Epidemiological evidence supports the importance of genetic factors in disease susceptibility, whereas pharmacological and neuroimaging studies have suggested a defect in the dopamine system. The dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) has been reported to be associated with GTS and related phenotypes. Here, we evaluate genetic association between DRD2 and GTS in a sample from a South American population isolate (Antioquia, Colombia). We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the DRD2 gene region in 69 GTS patients and their nuclear families and carried out both SNP and haplotype-based transmission distortion analysis. Evidence for association was found for three SNPs (rs6279, rs1079597 and rs4648318) and a five marker-haplotype comprising both rs6279 and rs1079597. Our findings replicate the association of DRD2 and GTS, and are consistent with the proposed connection between the dopamine system and this complex neuropsychiatric disease. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | University of Amazon and Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

Native of the Amazon, the nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia) is a fruit cultivated by family farmers and used in cooking; as such, it represents an opportunity for regional agribusiness. The Embrapa Eastern Amazon set up an active germplasm bank (BAG) consisting of 22 accessions sampled in 11 municipalities of Par State. Due to its economic potential, there is an interest to advance the genetic breeding program of this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the BAG nanche collection using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Accessions were genotyped using 23 pre-selected ISSR primers resulting in 109 amplified polymorphic and 51 monomorphic bands. With eight polymorphic bands each, the most polymorphic primers were UBC 809 and UBC 848. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis based on Jaccards coefficient indicated that the individuals clustered into two distinct groups. Accessions Igarap Au-2 and Augusto Corra-Pl 1 were most similar. The genetic dissimilarity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.59. We conclude that the ISSR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms in the nanche accessions, and that it is possible to infer the genetic variability among accessions of the collection. This demonstrate the importance of using molecular markers in poorly studied species and the advantages that this information can bring to the genetic improvement of such species.


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gaceta medica de Mexico | Year: 2012

This review focuses on six transcendental aspects that affect transplant immunology in Mexico: in first place, several immune factors which may lead to graft loss are highlighted; then, some features of the biological variability present in Mexican populations are pointed out in the context of their adaptive and sociopolitical history, leading to the discussion on the genetic diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the importance of resolution in genotypic characterization of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and related systems on the basis of human intra-population variability. Critical points on the interpretation of serological reactivity of anti-HLA antibodies are discussed in function of allelic frequency as a probability of finding a variant in a finite population. Finally, evidence of influence of other genetic systems on the recipient-graft relationship is emphasized.

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