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Cannas A.,University of Cagliari | Borghero G.,University of Cagliari | Floris G.L.,University of Cagliari | Solla P.,University of Cagliari | And 21 more authors.

Based on our previous finding of the p.A382T founder mutation in ALS patients with concomitant parkinsonism in the Sardinian population, we hypothesized that the same variant may underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) and/or other forms of degenerative parkinsonism on this Mediterranean island. We screened a cohort of 611 patients with PD (544 cases) and other forms of degenerative parkinsonism (67 cases) and 604 unrelated controls for the c.1144G > A (p.A382T) missense mutation of the TARDBP gene. The p.A382T mutation was identified in nine patients with parkinsonism. Of these, five (0.9 % of PD patients) presented a typical PD (two with familiar forms), while four patients (6.0 % of all other forms of parkinsonism) presented a peculiar clinical presentation quite different from classical atypical parkinsonism with an overlap of extrapyramidal-pyramidal-cognitive clinical signs. The mutation was found in eight Sardinian controls (1.3 %) consistent with a founder mutation in the island population. Our findings suggest that the clinical presentation of the p.A382T TARDBP gene mutation may include forms of parkinsonism in which the extrapyramidal signs are the crucial core of the disease at onset. These forms can present PSP or CBD-like clinical signs, with bulbar and/or extrabulbar pyramidal signs and cognitive impairment. No evidence of association has been found between TARDBP gene mutation and typical PD. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Gencpinar P.,Dokuz Eylul University | Makay B.B.,Dokuz Eylul University | Gattorno M.,UO Pediatria II | Caroli F.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecolare | Unsal E.,Dokuz Eylul University
Turkish Journal of Pediatrics

The hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS), so-called mevalonate kinase deficiency, is caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase enzyme. HIDS is characterized by recurrent fever attacks of 3-7 days that begin in infancy and recur every 4-6 weeks. The febrile period is accompanied by lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, aphthous ulcers, and varying degree of skin involvement. The course and severity of the disease may be quite different. There is no effective or proven therapy for HIDS. We report two cases with HIDS, which had separate clinical findings and treatment strategies. Source

Gribouval O.,University of Paris Descartes | Pawtowski A.,AP HP | Arrondel C.,University of Paris Descartes | Sallinen S.-L.,University of Tampere | And 49 more authors.
Human Mutation

Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by early onset and persistent fetal anuria leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequence, associated with skull ossification defects. Early death occurs in most cases from anuria, pulmonary hypoplasia, and refractory arterial hypotension. The disease is linked to mutations in the genes encoding several components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS): AGT (angiotensinogen), REN (renin), ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme), and AGTR1 (angiotensin II receptor type 1). Here, we review the series of 54 distinct mutations identified in 48 unrelated families. Most of them are novel and ACE mutations are the most frequent, observed in two-thirds of families (64.6%). The severity of the clinical course was similar whatever the mutated gene, which underlines the importance of a functional RAS in the maintenance of blood pressure and renal blood flow during the life of a human fetus. Renal hypoperfusion, whether genetic or secondary to a variety of diseases, precludes the normal development/ differentiation of proximal tubules. The identification of the disease on the basis of precise clinical and histological analyses and the characterization of the genetic defects allow genetic counseling and early prenatal diagnosis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Busby G.B.J.,University of Oxford | Hellenthal G.,University College London | Montinaro F.,University of Oxford | Tofanelli S.,University of Pisa | And 25 more authors.
Current Biology

Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1-7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8-11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source

Cali F.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecolare | Ragalmuto A.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecolare | Chiavetta V.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecolare | Calabrese G.,U.O. di Neurologia e Neurofisiopatologia Clinica e Strumentale | And 9 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. Source

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