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San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina

Garcia P.E.,Laboratorio Of Fotobiologia Inibioma | Ferraro M.A.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia Y Fotobiologia Acuatica | Perez A.P.,Laboratorio Of Fotobiologia Inibioma | Zagarese H.E.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia Y Fotobiologia Acuatica | Dieguez M.C.,Laboratorio Of Fotobiologia Inibioma
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences

The bio-accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) is common in planktonic copepods that inhabit environments exposed to high levels of solar radiation. MAAs accumulation in copepods can be affected both by extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic factors (local adaptation, genotype, etc.). Laboratory experiments were performed to study the bio-accumulation of MAAs in two geographically-isolated populations of Boeckella gracilipes from a mountain and a piedmont lake of North Patagonia. We performed two series of 10-day incubations of B. gracilipes from the different lakes applying two radiation conditions (PAR + UVR and darkness), at five different temperatures (5 to 20 °C) and providing a MAA-free flagellate as food. We assumed that differences in final MAAs concentrations between copepod populations should be exclusively due to environmental factors, and that any difference in the patterns of MAAs accumulation should exclusively arise from differences in MAAs concentration at the time of collection. MAAs concentration was three fold higher in B. gracilipes from Lake Verde than in copepods from the Lake Morenito. The MAAs suite was dominated (∼90%) by a combination of porphyra-334 and mycosporine-glycine in copepods from Lake Verde, and porphyra-334 and MAA-332 in those from Lake Morenito. Two exclusive MAA compounds were identified, mycosporine-glycine in copepods from Lake Verde and shinorine in the copepod population from Lake Morenito. Laboratory experiments showed that: (i) exposure to PAR + UVR stimulated the accumulation of MAAs in both copepod populations; (ii) temperature affected the response of MAAs and, remarkably, low temperatures stimulated MAAs accumulation even in dark incubations, (iii) the response to radiation and temperature in MAAs accumulation was more pronounced in the population with low initial MAAs than in the population with high initial MAAs concentrations. The differences in intrinsic factors between B. gracilipes populations, such as local adaptation to contrasting UV and temperature scenarios, among others, appear to play an important role in determining levels and patterns of MAAs accumulation in B. gracilipes. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Garcia P.E.,Laboratorio Of Fotobiologia Inibioma | Dieguez M.C.,Laboratorio Of Fotobiologia Inibioma | Queimalinos C.,Laboratorio Of Fotobiologia Inibioma
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management

North-western Patagonia contains a variety of glacially formed mountain lakes located at different positions from the treeline in the Andean Patagonian forest region. Water chemistry of six North Patagonian lakes located in an altitudinal gradient, above, at and below the treeline (~41°S) were analysed in this study. The relative importance of allochtonous to autochthonous carbon inputs along a marked catchment vegetation gradient encompassing altoandino vegetation and Nothofagus forests was addressed. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration varied among the study lakes, with the lakes located higher in the landscape exhibiting lower DOC concentrations (<1 mg L-1) than lakes located at or below the treeline (>2 mg L-1). Analysis of coloured and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM, respectively) followed the DOC pattern, despite the contrasting catchments of the study lakes. The results indicated the CDOM in all the lakes had low molecular weight and low aromaticity. The excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) highlighted three distinctive fluorophores in the FDOM, including two humic-like (peak A and peak C) revealing the presence of humic terrestrial material, and a protein-like fluorophore (peak T) generally associated with autochthonous DOM. The increased intensities of the humic fluorophores in the lakes located below the treeline suggest higher allochtonous carbon inputs from their catchments. This evidence collectively suggests that mountain lakes exhibit some heterogeneity in terms of DOM, likely attributable to their position in relation to the treeline, which determines the contribution of the catchment. As remote lakes are extremely sensitive to changes in their catchments, these North Patagonian mountain lakes may accurately track the impact of climate and anthropogenic changes on the landscape. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

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