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Sbrana F.,National Research Council Italy | Fotia C.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | Bracalello A.,University of Basilicata | Baldini N.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | And 4 more authors.
Bioinspiration and Biomimetics | Year: 2012

Mesenchymal stem cells have attracted great interest in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine because of their multipotentiality and relative ease of isolation from adult tissues. The medical application of this cellular system requires the inclusion in a growth and delivery scaffold that is crucial for the clinical effectiveness of the therapy. In particular, the ideal scaffolding material should have the needed porosity and mechanical strength to allow a good integration with the surrounding tissues, but it should also assure high biocompatibility and full resorbability. For such a purpose, protein-inspired biomaterials and, in particular, elastomeric-derived polypeptides are playing a major role, in which they are expected to fulfil many of the biological and mechanical requirements. A specific chimeric protein, designed starting from elastin, resilin and collagen sequences, was characterized over different length scales. Single-molecule mechanics, aggregation properties and compatibility with human mesenchymal stem cells were tested, showing that the engineered compound is a good candidate as a stem cell scaffold to be used in tissue engineering applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Cenni E.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | Savarino L.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | Perut F.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | Fotia C.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | And 2 more authors.
Musculoskeletal Surgery | Year: 2010

Autologous platelet gel, which is usually prepared by adding thrombin and calcium to a platelet concentrate, is used to accelerate bone repair as a possible alternative to recombinant growth factors (GF), through the osteogenic GF released from a-granules. The advantages of platelet gel lie in its mimicking the GF effects of the physiological bone healing and regenerative processes, in addition to a relatively simple and low cost technique. Moreover, if autologous platelet gel is used, immunological reactions are avoided. In in vitro systems, platelet gel stimulated osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, while it inhibited complete osteoclast differentiation and activation. Moreover, platelet gel favoured endothelial cell proliferation and expression of pro-osteogenic functions. In experimental animals and in clinical application, the efficacy of platelet gel was increased by the combination with bone allografts, acting as scaffolds, and with bone marrow stromal cells. © Springer-Verlag 2009. Source

Vitale-Brovarone C.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Ciapetti G.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | Leonardi E.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | Baldini N.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications | Year: 2011

Highly porous bioresorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds were prepared via sponge replication method by using an open-cell polyurethane foam as a template and phosphate-based glass powders. The glass, belonging to the P 2O 5-SiO 2-CaO-MgO-Na 2O-K 2O system, was synthesized by a melting-quenching route, ground, and sieved to obtain powders with a grain size of less than 30m. A slurry containing glass powders, polyvinyl alcohol, and water was prepared to coat the polymeric template. The removal of the polymer and the sintering of the glass powders were performed by a thermal treatment, in order to obtain an inorganic replica of the template structure. The structure and properties of the scaffold were investigated from structural, morphological, and mechanical viewpoints by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, image analysis, and compressive tests. The scaffolds exhibited a trabecular architecture that closely mimics the structure of a natural spongy bone. The solubility of the porous structures was assessed by soaking the samples in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl for different time frames and then by assessing the scaffold weight loss. As far as the test in SBF is concerned, the nucleation of hydroxyapatite on the scaffold trabeculae demonstrates the bioactivity of the material. Biological tests were carried out using human bone marrow stromal cells to test the osteoconductivity of the material. The cells adhered to the scaffold struts and were metabolically active; it was found that cell differentiation over proliferation occurred. Therefore, the produced scaffolds, being biocompatible, bioactive, resorbable, and structurally similar to a spongy bone, can be proposed as interesting candidates for bone grafting. © The Author(s), 2010. Reprints and permissions. Source

Bortolini O.,University of Ferrara | Fantin G.,University of Ferrara | Fogagnolo M.,University of Ferrara | Rossetti S.,University of Ferrara | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are now the most widely used drugs for diseases associated with increased bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, and tumor bone diseases. A significant drawback of the BPs is their poor oral absorption that is enhanced by the presence of bile acid substituents in the bisphosphonate framework, with no toxic effects. A straightforward synthesis of bile acid-containing hydroxy-bisphosphonates and a full characterization of these pharmaceutically important molecules, including an evaluation of affinity and the mechanism of binding to hydroxyapatite, is presented. The biological activity of bile acid-containing bisphosphonate salts was determined using the neutral-red assay on the L929 cell line and primary cultures of osteoclasts. The bioactivity of the new compounds was found superior than bisphosphonates of established activity. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Savarino L.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Ortopedica E Medicina Rigenerativa | Greggi T.,Chirurgia Delle Deformita Del Rachide | Martikos K.,Chirurgia Delle Deformita Del Rachide | Lolli F.,Chirurgia Delle Deformita Del Rachide | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques | Year: 2015

Study Design: Case-control study. Objective: To verify whether metal ions in the serum of patients bearing spinal stainless steel instrumentation were elevated over the long-term period after implantation of stainless steel prostheses and to determine whether these levels could predict potential unfavorable outcomes. Summary of Background Data: Instrumented spinal arthrodesis, the standard procedure to correct scoliosis, routinely remains in situ for the lifetime of the patient. Elevated metal ion levels have been reported at short-term follow-up, but the long-term status, possibly related to systemic toxic effects, is unknown. Methods: Twenty-two patients treated for scoliosis with posterior spinal arthrodesis using stainless steel instrumentation were included. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale were recorded. Chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) levels were measured (ng/mL) and compared with levels in a control group including 30 healthy subjects. A receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated on the basis of the clinical assessment (pain and disability) and the x-ray picture; the cutoff values for the parameters were settled, and the ion-testing potential was considered as a surrogate marker for failure. Results: The level of Cr was significantly increased in patients, compared with controls (P=0.018). A remarkable Cr release without any clinical-radiologic sign was recorded in some female patients. A high specificity (93%), positive likelihood ratio (7.00), and overall accuracy (77%) were calculated for Cr; these indicate a high risk of failure when the levels exceeded the cutoff value, which was 0.6 ng/mL. No significant difference between the groups was found for Ni (P=0.7). Conclusions: Cr testing is suggested as a reliable marker for the malfunctioning assessment and as a support for standard procedures, especially with doubtful diagnosis. Furthermore, high levels of Cr ions were observed in female patients. This finding deserves attention especially when counseling young fertile women. © Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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