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Scala V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Camera E.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Cutanea E Centro Integrato Of Metabolomica | Ludovici M.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Cutanea E Centro Integrato Of Metabolomica | Dall'Asta C.,University of Parma | And 7 more authors.
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2013

Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important fungal pathogens causing ear and stalk rot in maize. Even if frequently asymptomatic, it can produce a harmful series of compounds named fumonisins. Plant and fungal oxylipins play a crucial role in determining the outcome of the interaction between the pathogen and its host. Moreover, oxylipins are factors able to modulate the secondary metabolism in fungi. To uncover the existence of the relationship between oxylipin production and fumonisin synthesis in F. verticillioides, we analysed some molecular and physiological parameters, such as the expression of genes whose products are related to oxylipin synthesis (i.e. lipoxygenase, diol synthases and fatty acid oxidase), the oxylipin profile of both cracked maize and the pathogen by using a lipidomic approach (i.e. combining LC-TOF and LC-MS/MS approaches with a robust statistical analysis) and the synthesis of fumonisin B1. The results suggested a close relationship between the modification of the pathogen oxylipin profile with the fumonisin synthesis. Notably, a modification of the oxylipin profile of the pathogen during its growth on cracked maize can be demonstrated. The switch in oxylipin synthesis could indicate that the 'presence' of maize determinants (e.g. plant cell wall fragments and/or lipids) was able to promote the modification of the pathogen lifestyle, also by adapting the secondary metabolism, notably fumonisin synthesis. Source


Camera E.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Cutanea E Centro Integrato Of Metabolomica | Ludovici M.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Cutanea E Centro Integrato Of Metabolomica | Galante M.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Cutanea E Centro Integrato Of Metabolomica | Sinagra J.-L.,Acne Unit | Picardo M.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Cutanea E Centro Integrato Of Metabolomica
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2010

Sebum is a complex lipid mixture that is synthesized in sebaceous glands and excreted on the skin surface. The purpose of this study was the comprehensive detection of the intact lipids that compose sebum. These lipids exist as a broad range of chemical structures and concentrations. Sebum was collected with SebuTape™ from the foreheads of healthy donors, and then separated by HPLC on a C8 stationary phase with sub 2 μm particle size. This HPLC method provided high resolution and excellent reproducibility of retention times (RT). Compound mining was performed with time of flight (TOF) and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometers (MS), which allowed for the classification of lipids according to their elemental composition, degree of unsaturation, and MS/MS fragmentation. The combination of the two MS systems detected 95 and 29 families of triacylglycerols (TAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG), respectively. Assignment was carried out regardless of positional isomerism. Among the wax esters (WE), 28 species were found to contain the 16:1 fatty acyl moiety. This method was suitable for the simultaneous detection of squalene and its oxygenated derivative. A total of 9 cholesterol esters (CE) were identified and more than 48 free fatty acids (FFA) were detected in normal sebum. The relative abundance of each individual lipid within its own chemical class was determined for 12 healthy donors. In summary, this method provided the first characterization of the features and distribution of intact components of the sebum lipidome. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Dall'asta C.,University of Parma | Giorni P.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Cirlini M.,University of Parma | Reverberi M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 6 more authors.
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2015

The role of lipids in maize - Fusarium verticillioides interaction and fumonisin production in natural field conditions were investigated. In 2010, ten maize hybrids were grown in fields located in 3 districts in Northern Italy and sampled at 4 growing stages, from early dough to full ripe. Chemical composition, fungal incidence and free and hidden fumonisin contamination were determined in all grain samples. All the hybrids considered within this study showed a strong fungal incidence, with Fusarium section Liseola as prevalent, already at the early dough maturity and along the ripening period. Fumonisins accumulated over the growing season and reached the maximum level at the full ripe stage; hidden fumonisins were found significant in all the considered samples (∼57% of the free form at harvest). Hybrid H9 showed more than 50% of kernels infected by Aspergillus flavus and no hidden fumonisins were detected. This finding stresses the relevance of monitoring both free and total fumonisins for a comprehensive assessment of consumer exposure to mycotoxins. Previous studies showed a positive correlation between the content of linoleic acid and fumonisin accumulation into maize kernels infected with Fusarium section Liseola. Hence, an untargeted and targeted lipid analysis of maize kernels along the growing season and at harvest was performed. Results suggested a significant involvement of lipid composition of maize kernels in fungal infection and toxin accumulation. Specifically, mass spectrometry data pinpointed that at least 4 lipid entities might differentiate highcontaminated from low-contaminated samples when the cut-off of 2,000 μg/kg of fumonisins was selected. Among them, the oxylipin 9-HODE and three sphingolipids were identified. These results suggest that sphingolipid and oxylipin metabolism in maize kernels interferes with F. verticillioides growth and fumonisin production in plants growing in field. © 2014 Wageningen Academic Publishers. Source

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