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Baldassano S.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Generale | Amato A.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Generale | Cappello F.,University of Palermo | Rappa F.,University of Palermo | Mule F.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Generale
Journal of Endocrinology

Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP2) is a key mediator of refeeding-induced and resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth. This study investigated the potential role of GLP2 in mediating the mucosal responses to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD). In this view, the murine small intestine adaptive response to a HFD was analyzed and a possible involvement of endogenous GLP2 was verified using GLP2 (3-33) as GLP2 receptor (GLP2R) antagonist. In comparison with animals fed a standard diet, mice fed a HFD for 14 weeks exhibited an increase in crypt-villus mean height (duodenum, 27.5±3.0%; jejunum, 36.5±2.9%; P<0.01), in the cell number per villus (duodenum, 28.4±2.2%; jejunum, 32.0±2.9%; P<0.01), and in Ki67-positive cell number per crypt. No change in the percent of caspase-3-positive cell in the villus-crypt was observed. The chronic exposure to a HFD also caused a significant increase in GLP2 plasma levels and in GLP2R intestinal expression. Daily administration of GLP2 (3-33) (30-60 ng) for 4 weeks did not modify the crypt-villus height in control mice. In HFD-fed mice, chronic treatment with GLP2 (3-33) reduced the increase in crypt-villus height and in the cell number per villus through reduction of cell proliferation and increase in apoptosis. This study provides the first experimental evidence for a role of endogenous GLP2 in the intestinal adaptation to HFD in obese mice and for a dysregulation of the GLP2/GLP2R system after a prolonged HFD. © 2013 Society for Endocrinology. Source

Mastropaolo M.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Generale | Zizzo M.G.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Generale | Auteri M.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Generale | Caldara G.,Laboratorio Of Fisiologia Generale | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologica

Aim: To analyse the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the contractility of human sigmoid colon, and to characterize the subtype(s) of receptor(s) involved and the related action mechanism. Methods: The contractility of sigmoid colon circular muscle strips was recorded isometrically. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to reveal the eventual existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the distribution of Ang II receptors. Results: Transcripts encoding for the Ang II type 1 (AT1) and the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor subtypes and for the angiotensin-converting enzyme in the whole-thickness muscular wall were observed. Ang II caused a concentration-dependent contractile response, which is antagonized by losartan, AT1 receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, AT2 receptor antagonist. The joint application of losartan and PD123319 did not produce any additive effect. The contractile response to Ang II was partially reduced by tetrodotoxin, Na+ voltage-gated neural channel blocker, and to some extent by SR48968, tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. However, hexamethonium, nicotinic receptor antagonist, atropine, cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist and SR140333, tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, were ineffective. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that AT1 receptors were expressed on the smooth muscle layers and myenteric plexus. Conclusion: Ang II positively modulates the spontaneous contractile activity of human sigmoid colon via activation of post-junctional and pre-junctional AT1 receptors, the latter located on the enteric nerves that modulate the release of tachykinins. The presence of the components of RAS in the human colon suggests that Ang II can be also locally generated to control colonic motility. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Source

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