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Porto Velho, Brazil

Dibo M.R.,Servico Regional 8 | Dibo M.R.,Laboratorio Of Vetores | de Menezes R.M.T.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia Medica | Ghirardelli C.P.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia Medica | And 2 more authors.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

Introduction: The objectives for this study were to measure the diversity of Culicidae species, describe their abundance and seasonal variation in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and discuss the risk of arbovirus infections. Methods: The collection of larval and adult mosquitoes was conducted monthly from 2006 to 2007 in an urban area and four sections of forested land. In the urban area, larvae were collected from sites where oviposition by Culex mosquitoes was most likely to occur. At two of the four sites in the forested land, adult mosquitoes were collected with the use of CDC traps at night, and a Nasci aspirator was used in the daytime at the two other collection sites. Results: In the urban area, 34 Culicidae species were identified out of a total sample of 8,683 specimens; of these specimens, 80.7% were Culex quinquefasciatus, 9.6% were Culex coronator, 3.2% were Aedes albopictus, and 1.1% were Ochlerotatus fluviatilis. The abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae was negatively related to rainfal. In the woods, 2,268 mosquitoes were collected, representing 10 genera and 46 species. The most abundant mosquito species were Aedeomyia squamipennis, Culex coronator, Culex (Mel.) Melanoconion section, Culex declarator, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Anopheles triannulatus, Culex bidens/interfor and Culex habilitator/pseudojhantinosoma. Conclusions: The abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the urban area and the presence of other Culicidae species in urban areas and forested land point to the possibility of the transmission of West Nile virus and other arbovirus infections in São José do Rio Preto and other cities. Thus, the enacting of measures aimed at the surveillance of these arbovirus infections is essential. Source

Obara M.T.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia Medica | Otrera V.C.G.,Laboratorio Do Nucleo Of Pesquisa | Goncalves R.G.,University of Brasilia | dos Santos J.P.,Nucleo de Geoprocessamento | And 4 more authors.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

Introduction: Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 populations were investigated for susceptibility to deltamethrin. Methods: This study aimed to analyze the resistance of 11 populations of insects from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul by topical application bioassays. Results: The estimated LD50 and RR50 showed high levels of susceptibility (LD50 < 1 and RR50 < 2). However, analysis of the slope of the dose response curve showed that the populations of insects in the towns of Firminópolis/GO, Posse/GO, Poxoréu/MT, Douradina/MS and Aparecida do Taboado/MS present great probability of evolving resistance and, thus, are more likely to tolerate treatment with deltamethrin. Conclusions: Small changes in susceptibility and low levels of resistance were detected, but the temporal changes of susceptibility should be continuously monitored to adequately guide the actions of vector-control of DC. Source

Medeiros J.F.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia Medica | Costa C.A.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | de Lima A.M.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Pessoa F.A.C.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300). Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions. Source

Gonzalez C.R.,Metropolitan University of Educational Sciences | Reyes C.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia Medica
Medical and Veterinary Entomology

Four species of triatomines are known from Chile: Triatoma infestans Klug, Mepraia spinolai Porter, M. gajardoi Frías, Henry & González, and M. parapatrica Frías (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the last three are endemic. The geographical distribution of M. gajardoi includes the coastal areas in the north of Chile between 18° and 21°S, an area with both a resident workforce and summer-season visitors. A study was developed to assess the risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by M. gajardoi in hut settlements on the coast of the Tarapacá Region, in particular in Caleta San Marcos and Caleta Río Seco. The study comprised fingerstick sampling of 95 persons, venous samples from 29 domestic dogs and capture of 52 triatomines, from both fishing coves. The samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The results show that, of the total number of persons studied, 100% were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) antibodies, 10.34% of canids were positive for the antibody and 5.8% of M. gajardoi were infected to the PCR technique. The presence of this species in areas close to human settlements constitutes a risk to human populations established on the coast of northern Chile. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

Carvalho I.M.,Instituto Butantan | Moraes R.B.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia Medica | Gil H.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Alves R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

Introduction: Microsporidia constitute the most common black fl y pathogens, although the species’ diversity, seasonal occurrence and transmission mechanisms remain poorly understood. Infections by this agent are often chronic and non-lethal, but they can cause reduced fecundity and decreased longevity. The objective of this study was to identify microsporidia infecting Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax (Kollar, 1832) larvae from Caraguatatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, by molecular and morphological characterization. Methods: Larvae were collected at a single point in a stream in a rural area of the city and were kept under artificial aeration until analysis. Polydispyrenia spp. infection was characterized by the presence of at least 32 mononuclear spores measuring 6.9 ± 1.0 x 5.0 ± 0.7µm in persistent sporophorous vesicles. Similarly, Amblyospora spp. were characterized by the presence of eight uninucleate spores measuring 4.5 x 3.5µm in sporophorous vesicles. Results: The molecular analysis confirmed the presence of microsporidian DNA in the 8 samples (prevalence of 0.51%). Six samples (Brazilian larvae) were related to Polydispyrenia simulii and Caudospora palustris reference sequences but in separate clusters. One sample was clustered with Amblyospora spp. Edhazardia aedis was the positive control taxon. Conclusions: Samples identified as Polydispyrenia spp. and Amblyospora spp. were grouped with P. simulii and Amblyospora spp., respectively, corroborating previous results. However, the 16S gene tree showed a considerable distance between the black fl y-infecting Amblyospora spp. and the mosquito-infecting spp. This distance suggests that these two groups are not congeneric. Additional genomic region evaluation is necessary to obtain a coherent phylogeny for this group. © 2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. All Rights reserved. Source

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