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Ferreira M.C.,University of Brasilia | Walter B.M.T.,Herbario CEN | Vieira D.L.M.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2015

Topsoil translocation has been used for vegetation restoration throughout the world, but it has been poorly tested within savannas. This study describes Brazilian savanna (cerrado) regeneration for the first 3 years following topsoil translocation. The topsoil was stripped from 2.5 ha of savanna and spread on 1 ha of an abandoned laterite quarry in the Federal District, Brazil. We assessed vegetation structure and species composition in 18 circular plots (3.14/m2) after 5 and 15 months and in 30 circular plots after 37 months. In the last floristic survey, the coverage of herbs was estimated using the step-point method. To verify the source of regeneration, a total of 181 shrubs and trees were excavated over the first 2 surveys. After 3 years, 24, 40, and 21 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees, respectively, had been recorded by the surveys. Of the 33 families found, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae were the most representative. At 5 and 15 months, 91 and 83% of the individuals (shrubs and trees combined) were derived from resprouting, respectively. Shrub and tree stem density reached 3.2/m2 at 5 months, but declined to 0.5/m2 at 37 months. By the final survey, native and exotic grasses completely covered the ground. Topsoil translocation was effective for the propagation of native herbs, shrubs, and trees, despite the need to control invasive grasses. The large number of shrub and tree resprouts from roots suggests that the bud bank is an important component of the topsoil for savanna restoration. © 2015 Society for Ecological Restoration.

Lima I.L.P.,University of Brasilia | Scariot A.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | Giroldo A.B.,University of Brasilia
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2016

Large-scale commercial cattle ranching is the main driver of deforestation in the world, with several negative environmental and social impacts. To meet the growing demand for animal products, silvopastoral systems (SPS) can be an alternative as they have greater biodiversity and offer more environmental services than conventional cattle ranching systems. This paper aims to describe the implementation of SPS by traditional farmers in a rural settlement in southeastern Brazil, and the impacts on biodiversity of native plants. SPS were implemented by farmers in three selected areas that were cleared with a tractor. The impacts on the community and populations of native plants were estimated through vegetation sampling before and after the implementation of the SPS. Direct observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted to describe the implementation of the system and to understand the criteria employed to spare species, to manage native plants and the advantages of these systems according to farmers’ perceptions. Before the implementation, 1038 trees from 50 species and 29 botanical families were surveyed in the three areas. The tractor cleared on average 72 % of the trees, decreasing the number of trees ha−1 from 692 to 180 and reducing tree richness in 43 %. On average, 89 % of the removed trees had diameter ranging from 5 to 10 cm, indicating farmers’ preference in sparing the thickest trees. Farmers also spare useful species that have socio-economic importance, such as timber, fruit trees, fodder and medicine. According to the farmers, the advantages of the SPS are the high concentration of useful species, the environmental services provided and the increase in livestock production. The system described has great potential to ensure food security, generating socio-economic benefits for farmers and contributing to biodiversity conservation. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Vieira D.L.M.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | Coutinho A.G.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | Coutinho A.G.,University of Brasilia | Da Rocha G.P.E.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2013

Tropical dry forest tree species are recognized for their high resprouting ability after disturbance. We tested whether species that commonly produce root and stem suckers can be propagated by large stem and root cuttings, a useful method for landscape restoration programs. We performed four experiments: (1) In a greenhouse, we tested the propagation of six species using large stem cuttings collected from early successional sites. We used the following treatments: (i) dry season collection and planting; (ii) dry season collection, storage in humid soil, and wet season planting; (iii) wet season collection and planting; and (iv) wet season collection and planting after treatment with commercial NAA auxin. (2) Stem cuttings of Myracrodruon urundeuva were planted in a pasture during the rainy season after either NAA, IBA, or no auxin treatment. (3) As a control experiment, we also planted cuttings of Spondias mombin, a species known for successfully regenerating from cuttings. (4) Root cuttings of six species were collected in recently plowed pastures and planted in the greenhouse with and without treatment with NAA auxin. No root cuttings rooted. Only M. urundeuva and Astronium fraxinifolium stem cuttings rooted. Maximum success was obtained for stem cuttings collected and planted in the dry season (23%). Only 13% of M. urundeuva had sprouted by the 15th month of the field experiment. As a result, large cuttings are not recommended for propagation of the studied species. Future studies should include development of suitable methods of root harvesting and prospection of traditional knowledge for species selection. © 2012 Society for Ecological Restoration.

de Oliveira W.L.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | de Medeiros M.B.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | Moser P.,Santa Catarina State University | Pinheiro R.,Santa Catarina State University | Olsen L.B.,University of Brasilia
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2011

The objective of this research was to study the population structure of Hymenaea courbaril in two fragments of non-flooded gallery forests with different degrees of human impact. The research hypothesis was that populations present different size classes and number of individuals between fragments and that recruitment is related to understory light. As a climax species that requires light, and a species that is adapted to a variety of environments, there would probably be a higher abundance and regeneration of H. courbaril in a fragment that has more light. Twenty-five plots (10 x 20 m) were set in two fragments using transects between the forest edge and the stream bank. The seedlings were recorded within each plot by means of four subplots (2 x 2 m) in a central line along the plots. Within the understory the photosynthetic active radiation was determined and the transmittance values (T%) were calculated by measuring the sunlight in an open field. In both fragments, more individuals were concentrated in the smaller size classes. However the popula- tion sizes in both fragments were not adjusted to the negative exponential distribution (reversed J curve). A linear regression analysis indicated that both the diameter and height of young individuals were related to transmittance (T%) (F=11,58-14,82 (1,40); p<0,01). The lower abundance of juvenile individuals in the disturbed fragment might be due to recent and frequent fires. In spite of the higher abundance of young individuals in the preserved fragment, which has more undisturbed canopy and lower light conditions, in the understory these young individuals had size classes similar to the seedlings. This result suggests that H. courbaril is able to regenerate and to recruit in shaded environments. However, the growth of H. courbaril might be constrained by these lower light conditions.

Lima I.L.P.,University of Brasilia | Lima I.L.P.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | Scariot A.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | de Medeiros M.B.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia E Conservacao | And 2 more authors.
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2012

The conserva- tion and sustainable use of biodiversity requires knowledge about the native vegetation and how local people use available natural resources. The aims of this study were to test the ecological appearance hypothesis and to survey the diversity of uses and distribution of knowledge about useful plants in a tradicional community (Geraizeiros) in the municipality of Rio Pardo de Minas, in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caryocar brasiliense Cambess., Hancornia speciosa Gomes, Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel and Pterodon emarginatus Vogel presented higher use (0.7 to 1.8) and phytosociological importance values (1.31 to 36.98). The use diversity (H' = 1.13 to 1.26) and plant diversity in the environment (H' = 3.11) were low. Men demonstrated more knowledge of useful species than women and there were no significant differences related to informant age. A positive relationship was found between utility and plant availability in the environment, confirming the ecological appearance hypothesis. These results may contribute to the conservation of the cerrado savanna, the livelihood of local people and the establishment of management strategies based on local demands and priority species.

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