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lo Iacono M.,University of Palermo | Anzalone R.,University of Palermo | Corrao S.,University of Palermo | Giuffre M.,University of Palermo | And 5 more authors.
Open Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Journal | Year: 2011

Stem cells can be found in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues as well as in adult organs. In particular, research in the last few years has delineated the key features of perinatal stem cells derived from fetus-associated tissues. These cells show multiple differentiation potential, can be easily expanded ex vivo, and raise no ethical concerns as regards their use. Several reports indicate that cells isolated from Wharton's jelly (WJ), the main component of umbilical cord extracellular matrix, are multipotent stem cells that express markers shared by other mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and give rise to different mature cell types belonging to all three germ layers. Moreover, WJ-MSC display promising hypoimmunogenic and immunomodulatory properties, since they express molecules able to modulate NK cells and expand regulatory T-cell populations. In this review, we focus on the use of perinatal stem cells for regenerative medicine aimed at cartilage repair and regeneration. Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue which has poor regeneration and self-repair capacity in vivo. Traumatic injury or autoimmune processes are among the main causes of cartilage damage and degeneration, for which new hope comes from tissue engineering using stem cells which have undergone chondrocyte-like differentiation. We analyze the in vitro and in vivo data on the use of perinatal stem cells, in particular WJ-MSC, for cartilage regenerative medicine. The high variability of cell sources, the use of different types of scaffolds and matrixes, and the administration of several combinations of growth factors clearly point out the need for further research to optimize this cellular therapy approach and translate the results obtained from bench to clinic. © Lo Iacono et al. Source


D'Anna S.E.,Fondazione San Raffaele | Asnaghi R.,Laboratorio Of Citoimmunopatologia Apparato Cardio Respiratorio | Caramori G.,University of Ferrara | Appendini L.,Laboratorio Of Citoimmunopatologia Apparato Cardio Respiratorio | And 6 more authors.
Respiration | Year: 2012

Background: The literature shows conflicting results when high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scores of emphysema were correlated with different indices of airflow obstruction. Objectives: We correlated HRCT scores of emphysema with different indices of airflow obstruction. Methods: We performed HRCT of the chest in 59 patients, all smokers or ex-smokers, with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of different severity [GOLD stages I-IV; mean age ± SD 67.8 ± 7.3 years; pack/years 51.0 ± 34.6; percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1% predicted) 52.3 ± 17.6; post-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted 56.5 ± 19.1; FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio 50.8 ± 10.2; post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio 51.6 ± 11.0; percent diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO%) 59.2 ± 21.1; DLCO/percent alveolar volume (VA%) 54.5 ± 18.2; percent residual volume 163.0 ± 35.6; percent total lung capacity (TLC%) 113.2 ± 15; residual volume/TLC 1.44 ± 0.2]. All patients were in stable phase. Results: The mean ± SD visual emphysema score in all patients was 25.6 ± 25.4%. There was a weak but significant correlation between the percentage of pulmonary emphysema and numbers of pack/years (R = +0.31, p = 0.024). The percentage of emphysema was inversely correlated with the FEV 1/FVC ratio before and after bronchodilator use (R = -0.44, p = 0.002, and R = -0.39, p = 0.005), DLCO% (R = -0.64, p = 0.0003) and DLCO/VA% (R = -0.68, p < 0.0001). A weak positive correlation was also found with TLC% (R = +0.28, p = 0.048). When patients with documented emphysema were considered separately, the best significant correlation observed was between DLCO/VA% and HRCT scan score (p = 0.007). Conclusions: These data suggest that in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of varying severity, the presence of pulmonary emphysema is best represented by the impaired gas exchange capability of the respiratory system. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Eleuteri E.,Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri | Di Stefano A.,Laboratorio Of Citoimmunopatologia Apparato Cardio Respiratorio | Genta F.T.,Clinica Major | Vicari C.,Laboratorio Of Citoimmunopatologia Apparato Cardio Respiratorio | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Background: A reciprocal link between inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and endothelial dysfunction has been postulated in chronic heart failure (CHF). The endothelial repair mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Our aim was to investigate whether there are detectable signs of ongoing angiogenesis in serum of CHF patients and to evaluate the correlation with indexes of haemodynamic and functional impairment. Methods and results: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests were used to quantify angiogenin, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, Tie-2, and brain natriuretic peptide in serum of 87 patients with CHF of increasing severity according to New York Heart Association (NYHA; class I, n=8; II, n=45; and III, n=34) and in 14 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Angiogenin, angiopoietin-2, and Tie-2 were significantly increased in CHF of increasing severity (Kruskal-Wallis: p=0.0004, p<0.0001, and p=0.017, respectively). Angiopoietin-2 was inversely correlated with the 6-min walking test (r=-0.65, p<0.0001), peak oxygen consumption (VO 2max; r=-0.57, p=0.0002), and deceleration time (r=-0.61, p<0.0001). Multiple regression analysis showed that angiopoietin-2 was mainly associated with VO 2max (p=0.018). The angiopoietin-2 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CHF diagnosis was 0.94 (95% CI 0.88-0.99; p<0.001). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that angiopoietin-2 and selected serum markers of angiogenesis progressively increase with haemodynamic and functional decline in CHF. © 2010 The European Society of Cardiology. Source


Eleuteri E.,Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri | Mezzani A.,Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri | Di Stefano A.,Laboratorio Of Citoimmunopatologia Apparato Cardio Respiratorio | Vallese D.,Laboratorio Of Citoimmunopatologia Apparato Cardio Respiratorio | And 5 more authors.
Biomarkers | Year: 2013

The pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF) involves multiple hystologic and molecular alterations. To determine the effects of physical training on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), angiogenesis (angiogenin, angiopoietin-1 and -2, VEGF, Tie-2, SDF-1α) and inflammation (IL-6, CRP), we compared data obtained from 11 CHF pts before and after 3 months aerobic exercise training, to those from 10 non trained CHF pts (CHF-C group, age 64+2 years, NYHA 2). At the end of the study, EPCs count and AP-2 serum levels significantly increased in the CHF-TR group. These preliminary data suggest a significant effect of even a short program of physical training on angiogenic activation and endothelial dysfunction. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

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