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Militello in Val di Catania, Italy

Bontempo L.,Research and Innovation Center | Ceppa F.A.,Research and Innovation Center | Perini M.,Technology Transfer Center | Tonon A.,Research and Innovation Center | And 5 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Tomato passata, one of the 'pillars' of the Mediterranean diet, is a typical Italian product that by law must be obtained exclusively from fresh tomatoes. For this reason Italian law provides for use of the δ18O of vegetal water to determine whether passata (Brix of up to 12) is genuine or has been obtained by diluting tomato paste (Brix higher than 12), although without any indication of reference limits. In this study an extensive dataset of over 1000 samples collected along the Italian tomato product production chain (tap waters, juices, passata, pastes) in different years (2004-2012), was investigated on the content of water δ18O. This parameter was shown to be statistically different in the four classes of products, increasing from water to juice and paste, in relation to the different degree of evaporation taking place during the preparation phase. Moreover, the δ18O of vegetal water, due to the contribution of the lower δ18O values of tap water during dilution, was highly effective in distinguishing genuine passata from watered down paste, also in the case of passata previously concentrated up to 11.9 Brix. In particular, two lower threshold values are proposed:-1.4‰ for 'raw' passata and-2.9‰ for passata previously concentrated up to 11.9 Brix. Although the use of δ18Owater alone does not make it possible to discriminate between Italian and foreign products, an increasing trend in δ18Owater values was shown in juices and passata samples as well as in tap waters, when moving from northern to southern Italian products, making it possible to predict good geographical discrimination for this parameter. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Camin F.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | Bontempo L.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | Perini M.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | Tonon A.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Production of wine vinegar by fermenting dried grapes and rehydrating with tap water is not allowed by European Regulations. In this study we proved experimentally that δ 18O analysis of beverage water, officially used to detect the watering of wine and rehydration of concentrated fruit juice, can also be applied to vinegar to detect this kind of fraud. We considered fourteen production chains from wine to the corresponding raw vinegar and diluted vinegar (6% of acidity), and the official European wine databank established according to EU Reg. 555/2008. δ 18O limit values of -2‰ and -5‰ were defined for raw and diluted vinegars produced from fresh grapes. Values lower than these limits indicate a significant addition of water to a starting matrix with a sugar concentration much higher than fresh grapes. On this basis, more than 60% of 92 suspicious wine vinegars imported to the Italian market were shown not to be authentic, but rather obtained by diluting a concentrated source such as dried grapes with water. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Belligno A.,University of Catania | Gagliano G.,Laboratorio Of Catania
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2011

The present study reports for the first time qualitative and quantitative data about flavonoids and furocoumarins distribution of unripe Citrus × myrtifolia Rafinesque homogenate, used as ingredient of the popular soft drink Chinotto. No data are available in literature about the chemical characterization of flavonoids and furocoumarins of the chinotto homogenate used to produce the industrial extract. Samples for analysis were therefore processed to better reproduce the crude materials used to obtain industrial chinotto extract: the whole fruits were cut in half, seeds removed, softly squeezed discarding part of the juice, and homogenized in small pieces. The polyphenolics separation was made by HPLC-PDA detector coupled to ESI/MS/MS in positive and negative mode. It has allowed the identification and relative quantification of 16 compounds, among which the flavone-C-glycoside lucenin-2, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl flavanone glycoside melitidin and five polymethoxylated flavones have been detected for the first time in Citrus × myrtifolia. The flavonoids and furocoumarins distribution was compared with one of the Citrus × myrtifolia juice, and the antioxidant activity of both samples was assessed by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity)-fluorescein assay. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Belligno A.,University of Catania | Gagliano G.,Laboratorio Of Catania
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

The flavonoid and furocoumarin composition was investigated of peel and pulp tissues of unripe fruits of Citrus myrtifolia Rafinesque, an ingredient of the popular soft drink "chinotto". Compound separation and identification was made using an HPLC-PDA detector coupled to ESI/MS/MS in positive and negative mode. Eighteen compounds (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids, furocoumarins and polymethoxylated flavones) were identified and quantified. Data indicated that the overall amount of flavonoids and furocoumarins in peel was higher than in the pulp, even though their relative distribution did not significantly change, apart from a different distribution of flavones and a lower content of naringin in the peel. Source

Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Gargano M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | And 3 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

The present study evaluated the reliability of the ISO/TS 3632-2 UV-Vis spectrometric method for saffron classification, making experiments on saffron samples to which were added increasing concentrations of common saffron spice adulterants (safflower, marigold and turmeric). The results showed that the ISO/TS 3632-2 method is not able to detect addition of up to 10-20%, w/w, of saffron adulterants. For additions from 20 to 50%, w/w, of the three adulterants, saffron was classified in a wrong category; addition of higher than 50%, w/w, determined variations in the investigated parameters that did not allow identification of the product as "saffron". In all cases, the method did not permit the recognition of the nature of the adulterant. On the contrary, the specificity of the HPLC/PDA/MS technique allowed the unequivocal identification of adulterant characteristic marker molecules that could be recognized by the values of absorbance and mass. The selection of characteristic ions of each marker molecule has revealed concentrations of up to 5%, w/w, for safflower and marigold and up to 2% for turmeric. In addition, the high dyeing power of turmeric allowed the determination of 2%, w/w, addition using exclusively the HPLC/PDA technique. Source

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