Laboratorio Of Catania

Catania, Italy

Laboratorio Of Catania

Catania, Italy
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Bontempo L.,Research and Innovation Center | Ceppa F.A.,Research and Innovation Center | Perini M.,Technology Transfer Center | Tonon A.,Research and Innovation Center | And 5 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Tomato passata, one of the 'pillars' of the Mediterranean diet, is a typical Italian product that by law must be obtained exclusively from fresh tomatoes. For this reason Italian law provides for use of the δ18O of vegetal water to determine whether passata (Brix of up to 12) is genuine or has been obtained by diluting tomato paste (Brix higher than 12), although without any indication of reference limits. In this study an extensive dataset of over 1000 samples collected along the Italian tomato product production chain (tap waters, juices, passata, pastes) in different years (2004-2012), was investigated on the content of water δ18O. This parameter was shown to be statistically different in the four classes of products, increasing from water to juice and paste, in relation to the different degree of evaporation taking place during the preparation phase. Moreover, the δ18O of vegetal water, due to the contribution of the lower δ18O values of tap water during dilution, was highly effective in distinguishing genuine passata from watered down paste, also in the case of passata previously concentrated up to 11.9 Brix. In particular, two lower threshold values are proposed:-1.4‰ for 'raw' passata and-2.9‰ for passata previously concentrated up to 11.9 Brix. Although the use of δ18Owater alone does not make it possible to discriminate between Italian and foreign products, an increasing trend in δ18Owater values was shown in juices and passata samples as well as in tap waters, when moving from northern to southern Italian products, making it possible to predict good geographical discrimination for this parameter. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Camin F.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | Bontempo L.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | Perini M.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | Tonon A.,IASMA Fondazione Edmund Machinery | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Production of wine vinegar by fermenting dried grapes and rehydrating with tap water is not allowed by European Regulations. In this study we proved experimentally that δ 18O analysis of beverage water, officially used to detect the watering of wine and rehydration of concentrated fruit juice, can also be applied to vinegar to detect this kind of fraud. We considered fourteen production chains from wine to the corresponding raw vinegar and diluted vinegar (6% of acidity), and the official European wine databank established according to EU Reg. 555/2008. δ 18O limit values of -2‰ and -5‰ were defined for raw and diluted vinegars produced from fresh grapes. Values lower than these limits indicate a significant addition of water to a starting matrix with a sugar concentration much higher than fresh grapes. On this basis, more than 60% of 92 suspicious wine vinegars imported to the Italian market were shown not to be authentic, but rather obtained by diluting a concentrated source such as dried grapes with water. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bontempo L.,Fondazione Edmund Machinery FEM | Caruso R.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Fiorillo M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Gambino G.L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2014

Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) set some reference guidelines in order to allow the judging of the genuiness of a juice. Moreover, various studies have been carried out to determine the natural variability of SIRs in fruit juices, but none of these has investigated SIRs extensively in authentic citrus juices from Italy. In this work, about 500 citrus juice samples were officially collected in Italy by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies from 1998 onwards. (D/H)I and (D/H)II in ethanol and δ13Cethanol,δ13Cpulp, δ13Csugars, δ18Ovegetalwater, δ15Npulp, and δ18Opulp were determined using Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, respectively. The characteristic ranges of variability in SIRs in genuine Italian citrus juice samples are here presented as well as their relationships and compliance with the limits indicated by the AIJN and others proposed in the literature. In particular, the Italian range of values was found to be not completely in agreement with AIJN guidelines, with the risk that genuine juices could be judged as not genuine. Variety seems not to influence SIRs, whereas harvest year and region of origin have some influence on the different ratios, although their data distribution shows overlapping when principal component analysis is applied. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Muratore A.,University of Catania | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Quality | Year: 2012

Yellow flesh peaches (Prunus persica L.) from different Sicilian areas (Leonforte, Riesi and Maniace) were investigated for the first time for their polyphenolic composition, with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic evaluation was determined at two different maturity stages (commercial and postharvest ripening) via chromatographic separation by using reverse-phase HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS 2. This technique provides a comprehensive chromatographic evaluation of 10 compounds (hydroxycinnamates and flavonols), differently distributed in the analyzed tissues. Overall, the hydroxycinnamates were present in both pulp and peel, while flavonols resulted exclusively located in the peel. Peels were found to be richest in polyphenolics with respect to the pulps, containing up to 276mg/kg fresh weight in Riesi commercial-ripe peaches. Generally, the peach tissues from commercial-ripe fruits showed higher phenolics contents than postharvest-ripe fruits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Belligno A.,University of Catania | Gagliano G.,Laboratorio Of Catania
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2011

The present study reports for the first time qualitative and quantitative data about flavonoids and furocoumarins distribution of unripe Citrus × myrtifolia Rafinesque homogenate, used as ingredient of the popular soft drink Chinotto. No data are available in literature about the chemical characterization of flavonoids and furocoumarins of the chinotto homogenate used to produce the industrial extract. Samples for analysis were therefore processed to better reproduce the crude materials used to obtain industrial chinotto extract: the whole fruits were cut in half, seeds removed, softly squeezed discarding part of the juice, and homogenized in small pieces. The polyphenolics separation was made by HPLC-PDA detector coupled to ESI/MS/MS in positive and negative mode. It has allowed the identification and relative quantification of 16 compounds, among which the flavone-C-glycoside lucenin-2, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl flavanone glycoside melitidin and five polymethoxylated flavones have been detected for the first time in Citrus × myrtifolia. The flavonoids and furocoumarins distribution was compared with one of the Citrus × myrtifolia juice, and the antioxidant activity of both samples was assessed by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity)-fluorescein assay. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Traulo P.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Gargano M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | And 2 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2011

Highly degraded citrus fruit juices collected during a quality control investigation of the Italian Ministry of Agricultural Alimentary and Forestry Policies (MIPAAF) were analyzed for verifying their technological history. The analyzed samples were fermented black fluids stated as degraded first strength juices, in order to justify communitarian aids. Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) detection of solid phase extracted (SPE) purified samples provided clean chromatograms and good separation of compounds of interest using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and mass spectrometry HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS/MS. Since the PMFs concentration is elevate in peel flavedo, it is directly correlated with juice extraction strength. Results showed that all analyzed samples presented a PMFs concentration ranging from two to eight times first strength juices, not respecting the minimum quality requirements of the European regulatory framework. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Belligno A.,University of Catania | Gagliano G.,Laboratorio Of Catania
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

The flavonoid and furocoumarin composition was investigated of peel and pulp tissues of unripe fruits of Citrus myrtifolia Rafinesque, an ingredient of the popular soft drink "chinotto". Compound separation and identification was made using an HPLC-PDA detector coupled to ESI/MS/MS in positive and negative mode. Eighteen compounds (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids, furocoumarins and polymethoxylated flavones) were identified and quantified. Data indicated that the overall amount of flavonoids and furocoumarins in peel was higher than in the pulp, even though their relative distribution did not significantly change, apart from a different distribution of flavones and a lower content of naringin in the peel.


Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Caruso R.,Laboratorio Of Catania | And 4 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012

An analytical protocol was developed for investigating short-chain aliphatic amines occurrence in waxes for fruit coating with the aim of controlling their commercialization in countries where the use of these carriers is forbidden. Six short-chain aliphatic amines (morpholine, diethanolamine, triethylamine, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, triethanolamine and 3-metoxypropylamine) were detected by LC/MS/MS operating in positive ion mode in fortified waxes after a two-step clean-up procedure. The analytical method was statistically validated. The matrix-matched regression lines showed r 2 > 0. 97. Recoveries ranging from 92 to 114 % were obtained for the fortification level of 3. 5 % w/w and the relative standard deviations ranged from 2 to 8 % (n = 6). The limits of detection were below 0. 2 % w/w, while the limits of quantification did not exceed 0. 5 % w/w. The method is currently applied in ICQRF Laboratory of Catania on samples of coating waxes collected in the Italian market in the frame of MIPAAF institutional quality control activity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Caruso R.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Gambino G.L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

The influence of the wine distillation process on methanol content has been determined by quantitative analysis using gas chromatographic flame ionization (GC-FID) detection. A comparative study between direct injection of diluted wine and injection of distilled wine was performed. The distillation process does not affect methanol quantification in wines in proportions higher than 10%. While quantification performed on distilled samples gives more reliable results, a screening method for wine injection after a 1:5 water dilution could be employed. The proposed technique was found to be a compromise between the time consuming distillation process and direct wine injection. In the studied calibration range, the stability of the volatile compounds in the reference solution is concentration-dependent. The stability is higher in the less concentrated reference solution. To shorten the operation time, a stronger temperature ramp and carrier flow rate was employed. With these conditions, helium consumption and column thermal stress were increased. However, detection limits, calibration limits, and analytical method performances are not affected substantially by changing from normal to forced GC conditions. Statistical data evaluation were made using both ordinary (OLS) and bivariate least squares (BLS) calibration models. Further confirmation was obtained that limit of detection (LOD) values, calculated according to the 3σ approach, are lower than the respective Hubaux-Vos (H-V) calculation method. H-V LOD depends upon background noise, calibration parameters and the number of reference standard solutions employed in producing the calibration curve. These remarks are confirmed by both calibration models used.


Sabatino L.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | Scordino M.,University of Catania | Gargano M.,Laboratorio Of Catania | And 3 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

The present study evaluated the reliability of the ISO/TS 3632-2 UV-Vis spectrometric method for saffron classification, making experiments on saffron samples to which were added increasing concentrations of common saffron spice adulterants (safflower, marigold and turmeric). The results showed that the ISO/TS 3632-2 method is not able to detect addition of up to 10-20%, w/w, of saffron adulterants. For additions from 20 to 50%, w/w, of the three adulterants, saffron was classified in a wrong category; addition of higher than 50%, w/w, determined variations in the investigated parameters that did not allow identification of the product as "saffron". In all cases, the method did not permit the recognition of the nature of the adulterant. On the contrary, the specificity of the HPLC/PDA/MS technique allowed the unequivocal identification of adulterant characteristic marker molecules that could be recognized by the values of absorbance and mass. The selection of characteristic ions of each marker molecule has revealed concentrations of up to 5%, w/w, for safflower and marigold and up to 2% for turmeric. In addition, the high dyeing power of turmeric allowed the determination of 2%, w/w, addition using exclusively the HPLC/PDA technique.

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