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Yamasaki T.,University of Sao Paulo | Duarte A.M.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Curado I.,Laboratorio Of Imunoepidemiologia | Summa M.E.,Secretaria do Verde e do Meio Ambiente | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2011

Background In some states of the Brazilian extra-Amazonian region, such as the Atlantic Forest area, autochthonous human cases of malaria were related to simian malarias and vice versa. Methods To verify the presence of Plasmodium, 50 blood samples of howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) rescued from the Metropolitan Region of Saõ Paulo city, where the Atlantic Forest is present, were analyzed. The samples were submitted to microscopy (thin and thick blood smears), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Only one smear showed forms reminiscent of Plasmodium vivax. In ELISA, the frequencies of antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to circumsporozoite protein of P. vivax VK210 'classic' (Pvc), P. vivax VK247, human P. vivax-like (Pvk and Pvl), P. malariae/P. brasilianum (Pm), and P. falciparum (Pf) were 24.0% (12/50) for Pvc, 8.0% (04/50) for Pvk, 6.0% (03/50) for Pvl, 24.0% (12/50) for Pm, and 28.0% (14/50) for Pf, while the frequency of antibodies against PvMSP119 recombinant proteins was 42.0% (21/50). No serum reacted against PfMSP1-19. In IFA,the seropositivity of antibodies against asexual forms of P. malariae was 31.3% (15/48). We utilized three PCR protocols to develop a molecular consensus (positive results in, at least, two protocols). The frequency of Plasmodium infections detected by PCR was 18.0% (09/50) for P. vivax, 4.0% (02/50) for P. malariae, and 76.0% (38/50) of samples were negative. The molecular consensus was not seen in 4.0% (02/50) of samples. Conclusions These results suggest that a possible interaction between human and simian malaria coming from a zoonotic cycle cannot be discarded because simians that live in the areas of the Atlantic Forest could play a role as a reservoir for Plasmodium. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


De Paula M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | De Castro Gomes A.,University of Sao Paulo | Natal D.,University of Sao Paulo | Duarte A.M.R.D.C.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Mucci L.F.,Laboratorio Of Culicideos
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

The closure of two phases of the dam at the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant on the Paraná River flooded a flawed system located in the Municipality of Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo state, favoring the proliferation of aquatic weeds. This study aimed to observe the population of Mansonia humeralis in the area, monitoring the richness, diversity, and dominance of this species both before and during different phases of reservoir flooding as well as evaluate its possible consequences concerning human and animal contact. Adult mosquitoes were collected monthly in the following periods: at the original level, after the first flood, and after the maximum level had been reached between 1997 and 2002. Collection methods used were an aspirator, a Shannon trap, and the Human Attractive Technique. A total of 30,723 mosquitoes were collected, Ma. humeralis accounting for 3.1% in the preflood phase, 59.6% in the intermediate, and 53.8% at maximum level. This species is relevant to public health, since the prospect of continued contact between Ma. humeralis and the human population enhances the dam's importance in the production of nuisance mosquitoes, possibly facilitating the transmission of arboviruses. Local authorities should continue to monitor culicid activity through sustainable entomological surveillance. Copyright 2012 Marcia Bicudo de Paula et al.


Palasio R.G.S.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Casotti M.O.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Rodrigues T.C.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Menezes R.M.T.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia | And 2 more authors.
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2015

We analyze the current distribution of snails from genus Biomphalaria in the north and south of the coastal fluvial plain in the state of São Paulo, which is part of a large coastal floodplain. Data from twenty-nine collection sites confirmed that the freshwater body in both regions is colonized by Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea, which are natural intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The abundance of B. straminea in collection sites where only B. tenagophila had previously been recorded indicates the potential for B. straminea to expand in the region. While quantitative analysis of the number of specimens per species showed that local growth of B. tenagophila populations occurs during periods with little rainfall, there is a greater risk of B. tenagophilapopulations spreading between different water bodies during rainy periods, when heavy rainfall results in water levels rising in the main rivers and flooding caused by water flowing from the Serra do Mar mountain range to the coastal plain. The temperature increase caused by global climate changes and the consequent increasing frequency of high-water levels and floods can be expected to affect the distribution of these snails on the coastal fluvial plain, leading to the risk of a change in the autochthonous transmission pattern of schistosomiasis in the region. © 2015, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP. All rights reserved.


Ribeiro A.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Urbinatti P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | De Castro Duarte A.M.R.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | De Paula M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2012

In order to assess the epidemiological potential of the Culicidae species in remaining areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, specimens of this family were collected in wild and anthropic environments. A total of 9,403 adult mosquitoes was collected from May, 2009 to June, 2010. The most prevalent among species collected in the wild environment were Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, the Melanoconion section of Culex (Melanoconion), and Aedes serratus, while the most common in the anthropic site were Coquillettidia chrysonotum/albifera, Culex (Culex) Coronator group, and An. (Ker.) cruzii. Mosquito richness was similar between environments, although the abundance of individuals from different species varied. When comparing diversity patterns between environments, anthropic sites exhibited higher richness and evenness, suggesting that environmental stress increased the number of favorable niches for culicids, promoting diversity. Increased abundance of opportunistic species in the anthropic environment enhances contact with culicids that transmit vector-borne diseases. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.


Oliveira A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Vieira C.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Dibo M.R.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Guirado M.M.,Laboratorio Of Vetores Of Sao Jose Do Rio Preto | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the São Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araçatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in São Paulo were reported, both in Araçatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced from the northwest to the southeast flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at an arithmetic progression rate outward from the main cities of the microregions. Autochthonous cases of CVL and HVL emerged in SP, in general, after the verified presence of L. longipalpis. © 2016


Lima M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Romano-Lieber N.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Duarte A.M.R.D.C.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2010

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes which occurs in two distinct epidemiological cycles: sylvatic and urban. In the sylvatic cycle, the virus is maintained by monkey's infection and transovarian transmission in vectors. Surveillance of non-human primates is required for the detection of viral circulation during epizootics, and for the identification of unaffected or transition areas. An ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was standardized for estimation of the prevalence of IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus in monkey sera (Alouatta caraya) from the reservoir area of Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 570 monkey sera samples were tested and none was reactive to antibodies against yellow fever virus. The results corroborate the epidemiology of yellow fever in the area. Even though it is considered a transition area, there were no reports to date of epizootics or yellow fever outbreaks in humans. Also, entomological investigations did not detect the presence of vectors of this arbovirus infection. ELISA proved to be fast, sensitive, an adequate assay, and an instrument for active search in the epidemiological surveillance of yellow fever allowing the implementation of prevention actions, even before the occurrence of epizootics.


De Queiroz K.B.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Guimaraes J.B.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Coimbra C.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Rodovalho G.V.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 3 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2014

The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipocyte cell size, lipid and catecholamine content, Lep, OB-Rb and Ucp2 mRNA transcription levels, and circulating leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The HSD groups displayed a higher adiposity index and rWAT weight, Lep mRNA and protein upregulation, and a period-dependent effect on OB-Rb mRNA expression. Exercise decreased serum leptin and upregulated the OB-Rb mRNA levels. However, in rats fed with an HSD, the increase in OB-Rb mRNA and reduction in catecholamine levels resulted in a high level of adiposity and hyperleptinemia. The combination of training and an HSD decreases the NEFA levels and upregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 4-week period, while downregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 8-week period without changing the NEFA levels. Our results suggest that an HSD induces an increase in leptin expression in rWAT, while reducing adipocytes via leptin-mediated lipolysis after an 8-week period. In exercised rats fed an HSD, TAG synthesis and storage overlaps with lipolysis, promoting fat store development and Lep mRNA and plasma protein upregulation in adult rats. © 2013 The Author(s).


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular and Federal University of Espirito Santo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2015

Bromeliads are greatly represented in the Atlantic Forest, although many species are threatened with extinction owing to habitat fragmentation and intense extraction for ornamental purposes. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct studies generating knowledge about genetic diversity and the distribution of this diversity among and within natural populations to establish conservation strategies. These studies can be performed with the use of molecular markers. Molecular markers are advantageous for studies of natural populations, for conservation programs, and to aid in properly classifying plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within natural populations of Pitcairnia flammea, occurring in three fragments of the Atlantic Forest in the southern State of Esprito Santo through the use of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. DNA samples from 55 individuals were amplified with 18 ISSR primers, generating 180 bands, 159 of which were polymorphic. The Shannon genetic diversity index ranged from 0.348 to 0.465, with an average of 0.412. The Bayesian approach for the molecular data indicated the existence of two genetic groups. Analysis of molecular variance indicated the existence of 90.3% diversity within the population and 9.74% among populations. The amount of genetic differentiation of populations was moderate (0.0974), indicating that gene flow rates may be enough to counteract the effects of genetic drift. Greater genetic variability found in population B indicates that this area is an important source of genetic variability.


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular, Laboratorio Of Vetores Of Sao Jose Do Rio Preto, University of Sao Paulo and Servico Regional 9
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2016

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in So Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the So Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in So Paulo were reported, both in Araatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced from the northwest to the southeast flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at an arithmetic progression rate outward from the main cities of the microregions. Autochthonous cases of CVL and HVL emerged in SP, in general, after the verified presence of L. longipalpis.

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