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Yamasaki T.,University of Sao Paulo | Duarte A.M.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Curado I.,Laboratorio Of Imunoepidemiologia | Summa M.E.,Secretaria do Verde e do Meio Ambiente | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2011

Background In some states of the Brazilian extra-Amazonian region, such as the Atlantic Forest area, autochthonous human cases of malaria were related to simian malarias and vice versa. Methods To verify the presence of Plasmodium, 50 blood samples of howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) rescued from the Metropolitan Region of Saõ Paulo city, where the Atlantic Forest is present, were analyzed. The samples were submitted to microscopy (thin and thick blood smears), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Only one smear showed forms reminiscent of Plasmodium vivax. In ELISA, the frequencies of antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to circumsporozoite protein of P. vivax VK210 'classic' (Pvc), P. vivax VK247, human P. vivax-like (Pvk and Pvl), P. malariae/P. brasilianum (Pm), and P. falciparum (Pf) were 24.0% (12/50) for Pvc, 8.0% (04/50) for Pvk, 6.0% (03/50) for Pvl, 24.0% (12/50) for Pm, and 28.0% (14/50) for Pf, while the frequency of antibodies against PvMSP119 recombinant proteins was 42.0% (21/50). No serum reacted against PfMSP1-19. In IFA,the seropositivity of antibodies against asexual forms of P. malariae was 31.3% (15/48). We utilized three PCR protocols to develop a molecular consensus (positive results in, at least, two protocols). The frequency of Plasmodium infections detected by PCR was 18.0% (09/50) for P. vivax, 4.0% (02/50) for P. malariae, and 76.0% (38/50) of samples were negative. The molecular consensus was not seen in 4.0% (02/50) of samples. Conclusions These results suggest that a possible interaction between human and simian malaria coming from a zoonotic cycle cannot be discarded because simians that live in the areas of the Atlantic Forest could play a role as a reservoir for Plasmodium. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Lima M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Romano-Lieber N.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Duarte A.M.R.D.C.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2010

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes which occurs in two distinct epidemiological cycles: sylvatic and urban. In the sylvatic cycle, the virus is maintained by monkey's infection and transovarian transmission in vectors. Surveillance of non-human primates is required for the detection of viral circulation during epizootics, and for the identification of unaffected or transition areas. An ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was standardized for estimation of the prevalence of IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus in monkey sera (Alouatta caraya) from the reservoir area of Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 570 monkey sera samples were tested and none was reactive to antibodies against yellow fever virus. The results corroborate the epidemiology of yellow fever in the area. Even though it is considered a transition area, there were no reports to date of epizootics or yellow fever outbreaks in humans. Also, entomological investigations did not detect the presence of vectors of this arbovirus infection. ELISA proved to be fast, sensitive, an adequate assay, and an instrument for active search in the epidemiological surveillance of yellow fever allowing the implementation of prevention actions, even before the occurrence of epizootics.

De Paula M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | De Castro Gomes A.,University of Sao Paulo | Natal D.,University of Sao Paulo | Duarte A.M.R.D.C.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Mucci L.F.,Laboratorio Of Culicideos
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

The closure of two phases of the dam at the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant on the Paraná River flooded a flawed system located in the Municipality of Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo state, favoring the proliferation of aquatic weeds. This study aimed to observe the population of Mansonia humeralis in the area, monitoring the richness, diversity, and dominance of this species both before and during different phases of reservoir flooding as well as evaluate its possible consequences concerning human and animal contact. Adult mosquitoes were collected monthly in the following periods: at the original level, after the first flood, and after the maximum level had been reached between 1997 and 2002. Collection methods used were an aspirator, a Shannon trap, and the Human Attractive Technique. A total of 30,723 mosquitoes were collected, Ma. humeralis accounting for 3.1% in the preflood phase, 59.6% in the intermediate, and 53.8% at maximum level. This species is relevant to public health, since the prospect of continued contact between Ma. humeralis and the human population enhances the dam's importance in the production of nuisance mosquitoes, possibly facilitating the transmission of arboviruses. Local authorities should continue to monitor culicid activity through sustainable entomological surveillance. Copyright 2012 Marcia Bicudo de Paula et al.

Ribeiro A.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Urbinatti P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | De Castro Duarte A.M.R.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | De Paula M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2012

In order to assess the epidemiological potential of the Culicidae species in remaining areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, specimens of this family were collected in wild and anthropic environments. A total of 9,403 adult mosquitoes was collected from May, 2009 to June, 2010. The most prevalent among species collected in the wild environment were Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, the Melanoconion section of Culex (Melanoconion), and Aedes serratus, while the most common in the anthropic site were Coquillettidia chrysonotum/albifera, Culex (Culex) Coronator group, and An. (Ker.) cruzii. Mosquito richness was similar between environments, although the abundance of individuals from different species varied. When comparing diversity patterns between environments, anthropic sites exhibited higher richness and evenness, suggesting that environmental stress increased the number of favorable niches for culicids, promoting diversity. Increased abundance of opportunistic species in the anthropic environment enhances contact with culicids that transmit vector-borne diseases. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

De Queiroz K.B.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica E Biologia Molecular | Guimaraes J.B.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Coimbra C.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Rodovalho G.V.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 3 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2014

The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipocyte cell size, lipid and catecholamine content, Lep, OB-Rb and Ucp2 mRNA transcription levels, and circulating leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The HSD groups displayed a higher adiposity index and rWAT weight, Lep mRNA and protein upregulation, and a period-dependent effect on OB-Rb mRNA expression. Exercise decreased serum leptin and upregulated the OB-Rb mRNA levels. However, in rats fed with an HSD, the increase in OB-Rb mRNA and reduction in catecholamine levels resulted in a high level of adiposity and hyperleptinemia. The combination of training and an HSD decreases the NEFA levels and upregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 4-week period, while downregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 8-week period without changing the NEFA levels. Our results suggest that an HSD induces an increase in leptin expression in rWAT, while reducing adipocytes via leptin-mediated lipolysis after an 8-week period. In exercised rats fed an HSD, TAG synthesis and storage overlaps with lipolysis, promoting fat store development and Lep mRNA and plasma protein upregulation in adult rats. © 2013 The Author(s).

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