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Rosas-Trigueros J.L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Ilizaliturri-Flores I.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Benitez-Cardoza C.G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Benitez-Cardoza C.G.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Bioquimica | And 2 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) family proteins have been studied intensively due to their association with cancer and other human diseases. These proteins were originally associated with the regulation of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity and apoptosis. However, there is experimental evidence that suggests that several members of this family play instrumental roles in other cellular pathways including autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum signaling, mitochondrial morphology and synaptic activity among others. Bcl-2 family proteins have been explored using diverse experimental and theoretical methods to obtain structural information that can provide valuable insight for drug development. This review is focused on computational studies related to Bcl-2 family proteins. Different strategies are described and evaluated, such as Molecular Dynamics simulations, docking, and rational drug design with the aim of demonstrating the importance of structural details of either ligands or proteins. The relevance of the knowledge obtained using these tools to drug design is discussed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Hernandez-Rodriguez M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Correa-Basurto J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Nicolas-Vazquez M.I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Miranda-Ruvalcaba R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Among the multiple factors that induce Alzheimer's disease, aggregation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is considered the most important due to the ability of the 42-amino acid Aβ peptides (Aβ1-42) to form oligomers and fibrils, which constitute Aβ pathological aggregates. For this reason, the development of inhibitors of Aβ1-42 pathological aggregation represents a field of research interest. Several Aβ1-42 fibrillization inhibitors possess tertiary amine and aromatic moieties. In the present study, we selected 26 compounds containing tertiary amine and aromatic moieties with or without substituents and performed theoretical studies that allowed us to select four compounds according to their free energy values for Aβ1-42 in α-helix (Aβ-α), random coil (Aβ-RC) and β-sheet (Aβ-β) conformations. Docking studies revealed that compound 5 had a higher affinity for Aβ-α and Aβ-RC than the other compounds. In vitro, this compound was able to abolish Thioflavin T fluorescence and favored an RC conformation of Aβ1-42 in circular dichroism studies, resulting in the formation of amorphous aggregates as shown by atomic force microscopy. The results obtained from quantum studies allowed us to identify a possible pharmacophore that can be used to design Aβ1-42 aggregation inhibitors. In conclusion, compounds with higher affinity for Aβ-α and Aβ-RC prevented the formation of oligomeric species. © 2015 Hernández-Rodríguez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Zamudio-Prieto O.,CINVESTAV | Benitez-Cardoza C.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Bioquimica | Arroyo R.,CINVESTAV | Ortega-Lopez J.,CINVESTAV
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2014

EhCP-B9, a cysteine protease (CP) involved in Entamoeba histolytica virulence, is a potential target for disease diagnosis and drug design. After purification from inclusion bodies produced in Escherichia coli, the recombinant EhCP-B9 precursor (ppEhCP-B9) can be refolded using detergents as artificial chaperones. However, the conformational changes that occur during ppEhCP-B9 refolding remain unknown. Here, we comprehensively describe conformational changes of ppEhCP-B9 that are induced by various chemical detergents acting as chaperones, including non-ionic, zwitterionic, cationic and anionic surfactants. We monitored the effect of detergent concentration and incubation time on the secondary and tertiary structures of ppEhCP-B9 using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. In the presence of non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents, ppEhCP-B9 adopted a β-enriched structure (ppEhCP-B9 β1) without proteolytic activity at all detergent concentrations and incubation times evaluated. ppEhCP-B9 also exhibits a β-rich structure in low concentrations of ionic detergents, but at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the protein acquires an α + β structure, similar to that of papain but without proteolytic activity (ppEhCP-B9α + β1). Interestingly, only within a narrow range of experimental conditions in which SDS concentrations were below the CMC, ppEhCP-B9 refolded into a β-sheet rich structure (ppEhCP-B9 β2) that slowly transforms into a different type of α + β conformation that exhibited proteolytic activity (ppEhCP-B9 α + β2) suggesting that enzymatic activity is gained as slow transformation occurs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lara-Gonzalez S.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Estrella P.,CINVESTAV | Portillo C.,CINVESTAV | Cruces M.E.,Laboratorio Of Investigacion Bioquimica | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: A ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A) is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding. © 2015 Lara-Gonzalez et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Lara-Gonzalez S.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Estrella-Hernandez P.,CINVESTAV | Ochoa-Leyva A.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen | del Carmen Portillo-Tellez M.,CINVESTAV | And 8 more authors.
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

We report the structures and thermodynamic analysis of the unfolding of two triosephosphate isomerases (TvTIM1 and TvTIM2) from Trichomonas vaginalis. Both isoforms differ by the character of four amino acids: E/Q 18, I/V 24, I/V 45, and P/A 239. Despite the high sequence and structural similarities between both isoforms, they display substantial differences in their stabilities. TvTIM1 (E18, I24, I45, and P239) is more stable and less dissociable than TvTIM2 (Q18, V24, V45, and A239). We postulate that the identities of residues 24 and 45 are responsible for the differences in monomer stability and dimer dissociability, respectively. The structural difference between both amino acids is one methyl group. In TvTIMs, residue 24 is involved in packing α-helix 1 against α-helix 2 of each monomer and residue 45 is located at the center of the dimer interface forming a "ball and socket" interplay with a hydrophobic cavity. The mutation of valine at position 45 for an alanine in TvTIM2 produces a protein that migrates as a monomer by gel filtration. A comparison with known TIM structures indicates that this kind of interplay is a conserved feature that stabilizes dimeric TIM structures. In addition, TvTIMs are located in the cytoplasm and in the membrane. As TvTIM2 is an easily dissociable dimer, the dual localization of TvTIMs may be related to the acquisition of a moonlighting activity of monomeric TvTIM2. To our knowledge, this is the simplest example of how a single amino acid substitution can provide alternative function to a TIM barrel protein. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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