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Jorge R.S.P.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade | Jorge R.S.P.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Medicina Da Conservacao | Rocha F.L.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Medicina Da Conservacao | Rocha F.L.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos | And 2 more authors.
Oecologia Australis | Year: 2010

Several outbreaks caused by pathogens caused declines in wild carnivore populations in the last decades. In addition to the negative impact to wild populations, there is a concern about the transmission of some of these agents to humans and domestic animals. In fact, environmental alterations have resulted in changes in the pathogen-host relation. Therefore, monitoring health of wild animals is considered an important component in programs for control or eradication of diseases and in the public and animal health politics and for the management and conservation of wild species. Considering the role of mammals of the order Carnivora in the trophic chain, they might be used as "sentinels", working as strategic targets in programs of surveillance of important pathogens for public and animal health. We review in this paper case-studies of the main pathogens that occur in wild carnivores, emphasizing species of the Brazilian fauna. We also discuss laboratorial methods used in studies of exposure of Brazilian wild carnivores to pathogens, as well as strategies to minimize the impacts in these populations caused by that exposure, and methods for controlling the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in wild carnivores. Source

Goncalves L.R.,Sao Paulo State University | Roque A.L.R.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos | Matos C.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Fernandes S.D.J.,Sao Paulo State University | And 3 more authors.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Although hemoplasma infection in domestic animals has been well documented, little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of these bacteria in wild rodents. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in wild rodents from five Brazilian biomes, assessing the 16S rRNA phylogenetic position of hemoplasma species by molecular approach. Spleen tissues were obtained from 500 rodents, comprising 52 different rodent species trapped between 2000 and 2011. DNA samples were submitted to previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Mycoplasma spp. based on 16S rRNA, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic inferences. Among 457 rodent spleen samples showing absence of inhibitors, 100 (21.9%) were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The occurrence of hemotropic mycoplasmas among all sampled rodents was demonstrated in all five biomes and ranged from 9.3% (7/75) to 26.2% (38/145). The Blastn analysis showed that amplified sequences had a percentage of identity ranging from 86 to 99% with other murine hemoplasmas. The ML phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of 24 positive randomly selected samples showed the presence of ten distinct groups, all clustering within the Mycoplasma haemofelis. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the circulation of novel hemoplasma species in rodents from different biomes in Brazil. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

de Andreazzi C.S.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | Rademaker V.,Laboratorio Of Biologia E Parasitologia Of Mamiferos Silvestres Reservatorios | Gentile R.,Laboratorio Of Biologia E Parasitologia Of Mamiferos Silvestres Reservatorios | Herrera H.M.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos | And 3 more authors.
Zoologia | Year: 2011

The Pantanal is a South American biome characterized by extensive plains and stark environmental seasonality. Several habitats are subject to annual flooding, forcing small mammal species to aggregate in dry forest patches, which most likely influences their population dynamics and life history strategies. In order to investigate the seasonal influence on the life history traits of these small mammals, we conducted a 2-year mark-recapture study in the southeastern region of the Brazilian Pantanal (Nhecolândia) and analyzed the population dynamics of the most abundant small mammal species with the jackknife estimator. A trapping effort of 21,560 trap-nights resulted in 615 individuals in 1,171 captures (success = 5.43%). Three species of rodents - Oecomys mamorae (Thomas, 1906), Thrichomys pachyurus (Wagner, 1845), and Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1841) - and three species of marsupials - Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854), Thylamys macrurus (Olfers, 1818), and Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842) - were obtained. The most abundant species was O. mamorae, followed by G. agilis and T. pachyurus. Oecomys mamorae was more abundant in the wet season and presented an opportunistic reproductive strategy. Gracilianus agilis displayed increased population sizes in the dry season and synchronized, seasonal reproduction during the rainy season. Thrichomys pachyurus had a small population size, delayed response to variations in environmental conditions and higher reproductive rates in the dry season. All species revealed different life history strategies (seasonal, opportunistic or delayed response to environmental variations), coinciding with periods of higher resource availability in order to maximize survival. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia. Source

Rocha F.L.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos | Rocha F.L.,Laboratorio Of Biologia E Parasitologia Of Mamiferos Silvestres Reservatorios | Rocha F.L.,Triade Instituto Brasileiro Para Medicina da Conservac ao Rua Silveira Lobo | Roque A.L.R.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos | And 7 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2013

Aiming to better understand the ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles, wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs were examined for T. cruzi infection in the Serra da Canastra National Park region, Brazil. Isolates were genotyped using mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8 and H3) genomic targets. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was well established in the area and occurred in both wild and peridomestic environments. Dog seroprevalence was 29·4% (63/214) and TcI and TcII genotypes, besides mixed infections were observed. Only TcI was detected in wild mammals. Marsupials displayed lower relative abundance, but a high prevalence of positive haemocultures (4/22), whereas rodents displayed positive haemocultures (9/113) mainly in the abundant Akodon montensis and Cerradomys subflavus species. The felid Leopardus pardalis was the only carnivore to display positive haemoculture and was captured in the same region where the small mammal prevalence of T. cruzi infection was high. Two canid species, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Cerdocyon thous, were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection (4/8 and 8/39, respectively), probably related to their capacity to exploit different ecological niches. Herein, dog infection not only signals T. cruzi transmission but also the genotypes present. Distinct transmission strategies of the T. cruzi genotypes are discussed. © Cambridge University Press 2012. Source

de Lima J.S.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Rocha F.L.,Federal University of Paraiba | Rocha F.L.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos | Alves F.M.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2015

The coati (Nasua nasua, Carnivora) is a medium-sized mammal common in the Pantanal of Brazil. Unlike most mammals, coatis construct arboreal nests used for resting and reproduction. In this region, the coati is an important host of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. There are two possible routes through coatis can be infected by T. cruzi: the oral route or the vectorial route. However, the relative importance of each of these routes in the infection of coatis and its role in the sylvatic cycle of the parasite are unknown. Our objectives were to investigate: (i) whether coati nests were infested by triatomine bugs, (ii) what species were frequent in the nests, (iii) whether the triatomines in nests were infected by T. cruzi, and (iv) what were the food resources of these triatomines. Eight of the 24 nests sampled were infested with triatomines, a total of 37 specimens of at least two species (Rhodnius stali and Triatoma sordida). In one nest, R. stali and T. sordida co-occurred and both fed on multiple resources, including coatis. This is the first report of triatomines occurring in arboreal nests of coatis. The co-occurrence of two different genera of triatomine vectors and coatis within the limited space of the coati nests provide multiple opportunities for the exchange of the protozoan parasite through both the vectorial and oral transmission routes. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology. Source

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