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Losino N.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento Supervivencia Y Diferenciacion Celular | Luzzani C.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento Supervivencia Y Diferenciacion Celular | Solari C.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento Supervivencia Y Diferenciacion Celular | Boffi J.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento Supervivencia Y Diferenciacion Celular | And 8 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2011

Murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are pluripotent cells that can be propagated in an undifferentiated state in continuous culture on a feeder layer or without feeders in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Although there has been a great advance since their establishment, ESC culture is still complex and expensive. Therefore, finding culture conditions that maintain the self-renewal of ESCs, preventing their differentiation and promoting their proliferation, is still an area of great interest. In this work, we studied the effects of the conditioned medium from a bovine granulosa cell line (BGC-CM) on the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency of mESCs. We found that this medium is able to maintain mESCs' self-renewal while preserving its critical properties without LIF addition. mESCs cultured in BGC-CM expressed the stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, SSEA-1, Klf4, Rex1, and ECAT1. Moreover, mESCs cultured in BGC-CM gave rise to embryoid bodies and teratomas that differentiated effectively to diverse cell populations from endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Further, we found that mESCs cultured in BGC-CM have an increased proliferation rate compared with cells grown in the mESC standard culture medium supplemented with LIF. These findings may provide a powerful tool to culture mESCs for long periods of time with high proliferation rate while preserving its basic characteristics, contributing to the application of these cells to assess potential tissue engineering and cellular therapy applications. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Luzzani C.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento | Solari C.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento | Losino N.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento | Ariel W.,Laboratory Of Regulacion Of La Expresion Genica En El Crecimiento | And 7 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine because of their potential of self renew and differentiation. Multiple evidences highlight the relationship of chromatin remodeling with stem cell properties, differentiation programs and reprogramming for iPSC obtention.With the purpose of finding chromatin modifying factors relevant to these processes, and based on ChIP on chip studies, we selected several genes that could be modulated by Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, critical transcription factors in stem cells, and studied their expression profile along the differentiation in mouse and human ESCs, and in mouse iPSCs. In this work, we analyzed the expression of Gcn5l2, GTF3C3, TAF15, ATF7IP, Myst2, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC5, HDAC10, SUV39H2, Jarid2, and Bmi-1. We found some genes from different functional groups that were highly modulated, suggesting that they could be relevant both in the undifferentiated state and during differentiation. These findings could contribute to the comprehension of molecular mechanisms involved in pluripotency, early differentiation and reprogramming. We believe that a deeper knowledge of the epigenetic regulation of ESC will allow improving somatic cell reprogramming for iPSC obtention and differentiation protocols optimization. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Wu L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bluguermann C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bluguermann C.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Del Desarrollo Celular | Kyupelyan L.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 16 more authors.
Stem Cell Reports | Year: 2013

Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166low/negCD146low/negCD73 +CD44lowBMPR1B+) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5-6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166low/negBMPR1B+ putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Gonzalez A.S.,University of Buenos Aires | Elguero M.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Finocchietto P.,University of Buenos Aires | Romorini L.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Del Desarrollo Celular | And 4 more authors.
Free Radical Research | Year: 2014

Sepsis-associated multiple organ failure is a major cause of mortality characterized by a massive increase of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite intensive research, determining events in the progression or reversal of the disease are incompletely understood. Herein, we studied two prototype sepsis models: endotoxemia and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) - which showed very different lethality rates (2.5% and 67%, respectively) - , evaluated iNOS, ROS and respiratory chain activity, and investigated mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, as possible processes involved in sepsis outcome. Endotoxemia and CLP showed different iNOS, ROS/RNS, and complex activities time-courses. Moreover, these alterations reverted after 24-h endotoxemia but not after CLP. Mitochondrial biogenesis was not elicited during the first 24 h in either model but instead, 50% mtDNA depletion was observed. Mitochondrial fusion and fission were evaluated using real-time PCR of mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), and using electron microscopy. During endotoxemia, we observed a decrease of Mfn2-mRNA levels at 4-6 h, and an increase of mitochondrial fragmentation at 6 h. These parameters reverted at 24 h. In contrast, CLP showed not only decreased Mfn2-mRNA levels at 12-18 h but also increased Drp1-mRNA levels at 4 h, and enhanced and sustained mitochondrial fragmentation. The in vivo pretreatment with mdivi-1 (Drp1 inhibitor) significantly attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in CLP. Therefore, abnormal fusion-to-fission balance, probably evoked by ROS/RNS secondary to iNOS induction, contributes to the progression of sepsis. Pharmacological targeting of Drp1 may be a potential novel therapeutic tool for sepsis. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Losino N.,University of Buenos Aires | Losino N.,CONICET | Waisman A.,University of Buenos Aires | Waisman A.,CONICET | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Embryonic stem cells (ESC) need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM) derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM), a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC's proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA +). Here, we investigated if the FN EDA+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA-), and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC's proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC's proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy. © 2013 Losino et al. Source

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