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Hunt L.,University of California at Berkeley | Bonetto C.,CONICET | Resh V.H.,University of California at Berkeley | Buss D.F.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

Concentrations of 17 insecticides were measured in sediments collected from 53 streams in soy production regions of South America (Argentina in 2011-2014, Paraguay and Brazil in 2013) during peak application periods. Although environmental regulations are quite different in each country, commonly used insecticides were detected at high frequencies in all regions. Maximum concentrations (and detection frequencies) for each sampling event ranged from: 1.2-7.4. ng/g dw chlorpyrifos (56-100%); 0.9-8.3. ng/g dw cypermethrin (20-100%); 0.42-16.6. ng/g dw lambda-cyhalothrin (60-100%); and, 0.49-2.1. ng/g dw endosulfan (13-100%). Other pyrethroids were detected less frequently. Banned organochlorines were most frequently detected in Brazil. In all countries, cypermethrin and/or lambda-cyhalothrin toxic units (TUs), based on Hyalella azteca LC50 bioassays, were occasionally. >. 0.5 (indicating likely acute toxicity), while TUs for other insecticides were <. 0.5. All samples with total insecticide TU. >. 1 were collected from streams with riparian buffer width. <. 20. m. A multiple regression analysis that included five landscape and habitat predictor variables for the Brazilian streams examined indicated that buffer width was the most important predictor variable in explaining total insecticide TU values. While Brazil and Paraguay require forested stream buffers, there were no such regulations in the Argentine pampas, where buffer widths were smaller. Multiple insecticides were found in almost all stream sediment samples in intensive soy production regions, with pyrethroids most often occurring at acutely toxic concentrations, and the greatest potential for insecticide toxicity occurring in streams with minimum buffer width. <. 20. m. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Ferreira D.C.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane | Luz S.L.B.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane | Buss D.F.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva

While the Amazon region has the world’s largest reserve of fresh water, the lack of water services and water treatment, especially in non-urban regions, causes environmental and health problems. In isolated rural settlements supply is usually by shallow wells, and the quality of water is a concern for residents. These are situations where there are restricted options for water treatment. This study aimed to assess the use of simplified diffusion chlorinators as an alternative water treatment method. Bacteriological analyses were made of 100 samples of water from the wells, before and after application of the chlorinators, in the Rural Settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo in the Brazilian State of Amazonas. The sources that were analyzed were considered inappropriate for consumption without prior treatment, and the use of the chlorinators eliminated all contamination by thermotolerant coliforms in the great majority of cases. Also, the method was well received by residents, because it does not leave a taste in the water, is relatively low-cost and handling is easy. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the use of this method of treatment for this social-environmental context and present suggestions for improvement and adaptation, for application of this methodology in other settlements. © 2016, Associacao Brasileira de Pos – Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved. Source

Oliveira R.B.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Mugnai R.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental | Castro C.M.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental | Baptista D.F.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

The purpose of this study was to establish a subsampling procedure for benthic macroinvertebrates to aid in the development of a multimetric index to assess the biological condition of streams. Data from six streams that are considered minimally impaired were used. Subsampling was done using a device divided into 24 quadrats. The sediment from each quadrat was sorted, and all organisms were removed and identified. Richness metrics were the most affected by subsample size. Relative-abundance metrics were the most stable, proving that the sample was well distributed throughout the tray and abundance proportions were maintained. The results showed that the macroinvertebrate assemblage present in the six quadrats was similar to that present in the full sample. These analyses indicated that six quadrats, randomly designated, with a minimum of 200 collected specimens could be used in place of the full sample. In routine water management, managing time and costs are a major challenge; therefore, this type of simplification is absolutely necessary to ensure that a biomonitoring tool is useful for practical applications. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Gallo E.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca Fiocruz | Buss D.F.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva

In a scenario where ecosystemic services are being eroded and there is high social inequity, a new model of development is necessary, namely one capable of promoting social development with a reduction of its ecological footprint. The 'Green Economy' model is one of the proposed models. This paper seeks to analyze the environmental, social and individual impacts on human health in the context of a 'brown economy', and discusses the contributions of a green economy on the promotion of equity and health. The assumption is that economic development and environmental sustainability are not incompatible and both contribute to the eradication of poverty. The transition to a sustainable economy depends on political decisions, and transcends technological developments. Above all, it should instigate new models of production, consumption and social organization, which promote socio-environmental justice, encouraging social participation and democratic forms of governance to define a solid agenda for the implementation of sustainable development and mechanisms to implement them at all levels. Source

de Paiva Magalhaes D.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | da Costa Marques M.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Baptista D.F.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental | Buss D.F.,Laboratorio Of Avaliacao E Promocao Da Saude Ambiental
Environmental Chemistry Letters

Many factors influence metal speciation in freshwaters. Metal species that are more soluble are considered more bioavailable and toxic. However, evaluation of metal speciation in waters is a complex task. Moreover, the quantification of total and dissolved metals is not sufficient to determine toxic effects on the biota. Here, we review environmental parameters that influence metal bioavailability: mathematical models to predict toxicity, and the biological tools used to evaluate contamination in freshwaters ecosystems. The major points are the following: (1) we discuss many “exceptions” of chemical parameters that are deemed to increase metal bioavailability or to protect against metal uptake, such as pH and water hardness. We provide evidence of organisms and environmental conditions that break these rules and therefore should be considered when predicting impairment by metals. (2) We discuss the advances in mathematical modelling as a proxy to metal toxicity. (3) We discuss advantages and limitations of using multiple biological tools to assess toxicity, such as the use of biomarkers and microorganisms, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish communities. Biomarkers are efficient in detecting low concentrations of metals in a short-term exposition. Changes on biological community structure and composition are good tools to detect high metal concentration or chronic concentration in a long-term exposition. The use of multiple tools including chemical analyses and a set of biological indicators is recommended for a more accurate evaluation of metal impacts on freshwater systems. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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