PubMed | University of Tübingen, URS Corporation, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Laboratorio Of Arqueozoologia and University of Arizona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
The earliest known foragers to populate most of North America south of the glaciers [ 11,500 to 10,800 (14)C yBP; 13,300 to 12,800 calibrated (Cal) years] made distinctive Clovis artifacts. They are stereotypically characterized as hunters of Pleistocene megamammals (mostly mammoth) who entered the continent via Beringia and an ice-free corridor in Canada. The origins of Clovis technology are unclear, however, with no obvious evidence of a predecessor to the north. Here we present evidence for Clovis hunting and habitation 11,550 yBP ( 13,390 Cal years) at El Fin del Mundo, an archaeological site in Sonora, northwestern Mexico. The site also includes the first evidence to our knowledge for gomphothere (Cuvieronius sp.) as Clovis prey, otherwise unknown in the North American archaeological record and terminal Pleistocene paleontological record. These data (i) broaden the age and geographic range for Clovis, establishing El Fin del Mundo as one of the oldest and southernmost in situ Clovis sites, supporting the hypothesis that Clovis had its origins well south of the gateways into the continent, and (ii) expand the make-up of the North American megafauna community just before extinction.
Cruz-y-Cruz T.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Perez-Crespo V.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Pustovoytov K.,University of Hohenheim |
Sedov S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
And 5 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2016
Stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) in terrestrial geological materials (paleosol humus and carbonates) as well as fossil bones (collagen and tooth enamel) are established as highly specific records on paleoenvironmental characteristics. It was assumed that comparing the results of different types of materials on regional or local scales provides more accurate and reliable reconstructions and even opens new aspects of interpretation. This was tested by the comparison of the data obtained from the late Pleistocene paleosols and/or remains of Pleistocene megafauna in various locations in Northwestern Mexico: Sonora (paleosols formed in MIS3, MIS2 and MIS1); Central-Northern Mexico: San Luis Potosi (teeth, corresponding to MIS2 and MIS1); and Central-Southern Mexico: Puebla (paleosols corresponding to MIS3 and MIS2, and teeth associated with these paleosols), and State of Mexico (teeth, corresponding to MIS2). The results of isotopic studies are complemented with other paleoenvironmental proxies. The δ13C values of paleosols of Sonora is -19.8 to -16.95‰ in organic matter, and shows little difference between paleosols and Holocene soils; δ13C values of pedogenic carbonates are -6.4 to -4.52‰. In San Luis Potosí, the δ13C values of paleosol are -12.16‰ in organic matter. In Puebla, they vary from -24.6‰ in paleosols to -15.16‰ in the modern surface soil, pointing to contrasting vegetation change. The δ13C values in fossils range from -10.7 to 1.2‰ in SLP; of -2.73 and -2.93‰ in Puebla; and -6.5 to -1.3‰ in State of Mexico.The δ13C values of paleosols and analysis of megafauna in Northwest and Central-Northern Mexico matched each other, indicating mixed C3-C4 vegetation; while for Central-Southern Mexico, paleosols indicated predominance of C3 plants and megafauna indicated mixed C3-C4 composition. In general, the results indicate that in northern Mexico environmental conditions were slightly wetter than at present, while for the central area there was a large change in the environmental conditions of high humidity in MIS3 and MIS2, with a trend to drier climates in MIS1. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.
Perez-Crespo V.A.,Laboratorio Of Arqueozoologia |
Arroyo-Cabrales J.,Laboratorio Of Arqueozoologia |
Arroyo-Cabrales J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Corona-M. E.,Centro INAH Morelos |
And 3 more authors.
Southwestern Naturalist | Year: 2015
The diet of a gomphothere (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae, Rhynchotherium species) from the Mexican Pliocene was determined using carbon and oxygen stable isotopes relationships in dental enamel. The analyses demonstrated that this individual exclusively fed on C3 plants, similar to some specimens found in Florida, United States.
Sana M.,Laboratorio Of Arqueozoologia |
Bogdanovic I.,Laboratorio Of Simulacion Of Dinamicas Sociales E Historicas |
Navarrete V.,Laboratorio Of Arqueozoologia
Quaternary International | Year: 2014
The site of La Draga is located in the central part of the eastern shore of Lake Banyoles, 172ma.s.l. Archaeological work began in 1990. It is the only Early Neolithic lakeshore site in the western Mediterranean currently being excavated. Two different occupations have been documented within a timeline of 5430-4796calBC. An extent of about 800m2 has been excavated out of the minimum surface area of 8000m2. An added peculiarity is that different excavated sectors have distinct characteristics regarding their condition, due to the changing water levels of the lake in historic times: Sector A (328m2) is the emerged land sect∨ Sectors B and D (132m2 and 48m2 respectively) are located in the perennial phreatic level; and Sector C (310m2) is completely underwater. The analysis of more than 20,000 retrieved faunal remains evidences the exploitation of at least 51 different animal species (46 wild and 5 domestic). Comparative taphonomic analyses performed on assemblages in the terrestrial and phreatic sectors have focused on evaluating how the different conditions at the site influence the composition and characteristics of samples, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Emphasis is placed on the specific and anatomical variability documented in each sector, the proportions of mature and immature animal bone remains and on the animal carcass integrity. The estimation of the degree of historical representation of the faunal assemblages in each of the excavation sectors shows important differences between peat/anaerobic and dry/aerobic environments, documenting significant biases in sector A. These results demonstrate that the identification of taphonomic processes that operate at intrasite level and their effects are crucial data with important implications for the understanding of past social and economic dynamics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.