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Costa I.C.,Federal University of Amapa | Rodrigues R.F.,Federal University of Amapa | Almeida F.B.,Federal University of Amapa | Favacho H.A.,Federal University of Amapa | And 6 more authors.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Nanoemulsions are heterogeneous translucent systems, with intrinsic characteristics that make then in the spotlight of new product candidates for pharmacy, cosmetic and food industries. Surfactants have a main role in nanoemulsion stabilization, which is often associated to similarity among hydrophile- lipophile (HLB) values of oil phase and surfactants mixture. Jojoba oil is a natural raw material for pharmacy industry with economic significance and great potential for nanobiotechnology. The present study describes the development of jojoba oil based nanoemulsions. Measurement of mean droplet size confirmed nanoemulsion formation, in addition to a characteristic bluish reflection expected for this formulation type. Best formulations achieved were nanoemulsions with HLB value of 10 (235.0 nm) and 11 (240.0 nm). This data suggest that HLB value of jojoba oil may be in the zone of 10-11. To our knowledge, these are the first efforts for HLB characterization and nanoemulsion development of formulations with jojoba oil. Source

The present study provides the first investigation on the ecological aspects of the parasites M. lippincottianus from the Amazonian basin, as well as the parasite-host relationship. 76 out of the examined fish (98.7%) were parasitized by at least one species of parasites. A total of 8,774 parasites were collected, being Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Anacanthorus jegui, Dadayius pacupeva, Digenea gen. sp. (metacercariae), Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., Spinoxyuris oxydoras, Contracaecum sp. larvae, Dolops longicauda and Hirudinea gen. sp. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, followed by A. jegui. Among the endoparasites, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva were predominant. The mean diversity of parasites was HB = 0.96 ± 0.32 and there was aggregate distribution pattern. A positive correlation of body weight with the abundance of I. multifiliis and S. Oxydoras was observed, whereas a negative correlation of body weight with abundance of the Contracaecum sp. larvae was found. The relative condition factor (Kn) was not negatively affected by parasites, and a positive correlation between Kn and abundance of I. multifiliis, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva was found. This study is the first one to record I. multifiliis, D. longicauda and A. jegui parasitizing M. lippincottianus, as well as the first record of D. pacupeva and S. oxydoras in the Amazonas river system. Source

The Oxydoras niger Valenciennes, 1821 (Doradidae) is an endemic fish from the South America rivers basins (Amazonas, São Francisco, Essequipo and Orinoco Rivers) that is used as food by some Amazon people. The aim of this work was to study the effects of parasitism by protozoans and metazoans in the hemogram and the leukocytes features of O. niger collected in the Solimões River basin, Amazonas State, Brazil. Fish (70.3%) were parasitized by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa), Chilodonella sp. (Protozoa), Cosmetocleithrum spp. (Monogenoidea), Paracavisona impudica (Acanthocephala), Cucullanus grandistomis (Nematoda), Digenea and Cestoda, but the highest abundance was of monogenoideans species. This association of parasites caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In blood smears of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were found lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, PAS-positive granular leukocytes (PAS-GL) and eosinophils, but only neutrophils had its increase influenced by parasitism, while lymphocytes had a significant (p<0.05) decrease. This was the first study on blood parameters of O. niger in Amazon and the results may be used for comparison in others studies about this fish species. Source

Martins M.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Marchiori N.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina Epagri | Bittencourt L.S.,Laboratorio Of Aquicultura E Pesca | Tavares-Dias M.,Laboratorio Of Aquicultura E Pesca
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2016

A new species of Tripartiella is described from the gills of the wild saddle cichlid Aequidens tetramerus in north Brazil. Wet smears of skin and gills of examined fish were air-dried at room temperature and impregnated with Klein’s dry silver method for examination of the adhesive disc’s structures and denticles. Total prevalence of parasitism was 65%. This ciliate is characterized as a small-sized trichodinid, body diameter 37.03 ± 4.9 μm, adhesive disc 30.50 ± 2.71 μm, denticulate ring 13.28 ± 0.8 μm and 24 ± 2.0 denticles. Taxonomic and morphometric data for the new species are discussed. © 2016, Instituto Internacional de Ecologia. All rights reserved. Source

The parasitic fauna of wild Osteoglossum bicirrhosum from central Amazon (Brazil) and wild Astronotus ocellatus from eastern Amazon (Brazil) as well as the host-parasite relationship were evaluated. 87.5% O. bicirrhosum were parasitized only by Gonocleithrum aruanae (Monogenoidea). 92.8% A. ocellatus were parasitized by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora), Gussevia asota (Monogenoidea), Posthodiplostomum sp. metacercariae (Diplostomidae), Procamallanus inopinatus adults and Contracaecum larvae (Anisakidae). High levels of infection by G. aruanae occurred in O. bicirrhosum while in A. ocellatus the highest levels of infection were caused by helminthes ectoparasites such as G. asota, and endoparasites such as Posthodiplostomum sp., P. inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. There was a significant (p>0.05) negative correlation between the intensity of helminthes species and the relative condition factor (Kn) from A. ocellatus, indicating that these parasites are pathogenic for hosts. The parasite fauna of O. bicirrhosum was scarce, while the parasites for A. ocellatus were mainly helminthes species, including adults and larval forms. Such differences on parasites fauna of both omnivore hosts may due to their history life as well as environmental and biological factors. Source

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