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Caxias do Sul, Brazil

Drummond C.L.,Hospital Albert Einstein | Oliveira R.C.S.,Setor de Medicina Fetal do Hospital Albert Einstein | Mangueira C.L.P.,Laboratorio Of Analises Clinicas | Cordioli E.,Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia | Year: 2011

PURPOSE: to evaluate the performance of the combined first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities in a group of theBrazilian population. METHODS: a retrospective study including pregnant women with single fetuses referred to a fetal medicine center to perform the first trimester screening that combines maternal age, nuchal translucency measurement and two maternal serum biochemical markers: free B-hCGand PAPP-A. To evaluate the performance of the test, the detection rate, specificity, negative and positive predicted values and false-positive rates were calculated, considering as high risk the cut-off value above 1 in 300. RESULTS: we studied 456 patients submitted to the test. Advanced maternal age above 35 yearswas observed in 36.2% of cases. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the study population was 2.2%. Twenty-one patients (4.6%) presented a high risk (above 1:300) by the combined test. Using this cut-off level, the detection rate of the test was 70% for all chromosomal abnormalities and 83.3% for trisomy 21, for a false-positive rate of 3.1%. CONCLUSIONS: the combined first trimester screening was effective to detect chromosomal abnormalities, mainly for trisomy 21, with low false-positive rates. The combined test contributed to decreasing the indication of an invasive testif we compare to maternal age alone as a risk factor. Source

Camello J.T.,Laboratorio Of Analises Clinicas | Cavagnolli N.I.,University of Caxias do Sul | Spada P.K.W.D.S.,Faculdade da Serra Gaucha FSG | Poeta J.,Cursos de Biomedicina da UniRitter | Rodrigues A.D.,Laboratorio Alfa Ltda
Scientia Medica | Year: 2016

Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren from Caxias do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, associating it with household sanitation and with family members' self-reported knowledge about parasites. Methods: Children aged 5 to 13 years attending local elementary schools in the urban area of Caxias do Sul, including the outskirts and downtown area, were included in the study. The samples were processed by spontaneous sedimentation and analyzed microscopically. The children's legal representatives answered a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions and sanitation as well as on their knowledge about parasitic infections. Results: The sample included 257 schoolchildren with a mean age of 8.7±1.3 years, most of whom were female (58%). Of the analyzed stool samples, 5.8% were positive for parasitic cysts: Endolimax nana (60%), Entamoeba coli (26.7%), and Giardia lamblia (13.3%). Regarding living conditions, 99.2% of the schoolchildren had access to treated water, 94.6% said they had sewage collection and treatment in their households, and 99.2% reported having garbage collection. As to legal representatives' knowledge about parasitic infections, 74.7% knew what they were and 67.3% knew about their modes of transmission. However, 49.8% considered the information to be insufficient. Conclusions: This study revealed a low prevalence of parasitic infections in schoolchildren and favorable sanitation in their households. A high frequency of antiparasitic drug use without previous diagnosis by stool examination was reported. Source

Mares-Guia M.A.M.M.,Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | Rozental T.,Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | Guterres A.,Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | Dos Santos Ferreira M.,Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Q fever is an important cause of undifferentiated fever that is rarely recognized or reported in Brazil. The objective of this study was to look for the presence of Coxiella burnetii during a dengue fever outbreak in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where this bacterium had previously infected humans and domesticated animals. Blood samples from clinically suspected dengue fever patients were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C. burnetii; the DNA was detected in nine (3.3%) of 272 patients. One was coinfected with dengue virus, which was also detected in another 166 (61.3%) patients. The nucleotide sequence of PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the IS1111 transposase elements in the genome of C. burnetii exhibited 99% identity with the sequence in GenBank. The detection of C. burnetii in patients suspected of dengue fever indicates that awareness and knowledge of Q fever should be strengthened and that this bacterium is present in Brazil. Finally, because a negative molecular result does not completely rule out the diagnosis of Q fever and the serological assay based on seroconversion was not available, the actual number of this zoonosis is likely to be much higher than that reported in this study. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Ponde R.A.A.,Federal University of Goais | Ponde R.A.A.,Laboratorio Of Analises Clinicas
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

The course of HBV infection is determined by the interplay between viral replication via HBV protein production and the host's immune response. Therefore, the diagnosis of infection in clinical practice is established by the serological detection of HBV protein products as well as antibodies produced by the host. Although the serological findings for assessing the clinical course of infection are already well established, the expression of viral proteins and the dynamics of antibody production may vary during the natural course of infection. This causes the HBV infection to be occasionally associated with the presence of unusual serologic profiles, which can lead to doubts in the interpretation of results and mistaken serological diagnosis. The simultaneous detection of HBsAg and anti-HBs in the blood stream comprises an atypical serological profile, somewhat incoherent, whose significance can be complicated to establish. Outlined in this article are some immunological and molecular mechanisms which could justify the existence of this profile in which there is a great laboratorial and clinical interest. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Mieldazis S.F.A.,Federal University of ABC | Azzalis L.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Azzalis L.A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Junqueira V.B.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2010

Objectives: To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulinemia. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional observational study of 132 prepubescent schoolchildren residents in the municipality of Santo André, Brazil. Children underwent anthropometric assessment, their glycemia and insulinemia were measured and their HOMA-IR index calculated. Results: Seventy-eight of the 132 children (59.1%) were girls and 54 were boys (40.9%), with a mean age of 8.7 years and mean BMI of 13.7 kg/m2. A significant positive association was detected between HOMA-IR and BMI, insulin and BMI, weight and HOMA and between insulin and weight. It was also found that the higher the BMI, the greater the HOMA score. Conclusions: The results of this study allow for the conclusion that there is a strong association between hyperinsulinism and obesity. Measures should be taken to avoid weight gain during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2010 by Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Source

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