Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical

Villahermosa, Mexico

Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical

Villahermosa, Mexico
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Alvarez-Gonzalez C.A.,Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical | Gisbert E.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Ibarra-Castro L.,Research Center en Alimentacion y Desarrollo
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2017

This work contributes basic knowledge on larval development of Seriola rivoliana. A histological study describes the development of the digestive tract and accessory glands in S. rivoliana larvae reared under laboratory conditions at 24 °C from hatching to 30 days post-hatching (DPH). At hatching (2.6 ± 0.12 mm), larvae had an undifferentiated digestive tract with a closed straight tube and a large yolk sac with an oil globule. The liver and pancreas were observed at 1 and 2 days, and the mouth and anus opened at day 2. Enriched rotifers were visible in their digestive tract. At the beginning of the pre-flexion stage, a mixed nutritional period was observed. At day 3, exogenous feeding began; the digestive tract became differentiated into the buccopharynx, esophagus, an undifferentiated stomach, and the intestines. Zymogen granules were visible in the exocrine pancreas. At day 4, supranuclear vacuoles were present in the posterior intestine, indicating the beginning of intracellular digestion. At day 5, goblet cells were present in the esophagus and became functional at day 7 in the esophagus and intestine. The buccopharynx goblet cells developed at day 15. The presence of gastric glands and differentiation of the stomach in the fundic, cardiac, and pyloric regions during the post-flexion stage occurred at day 20. This was the onset of the juvenile period and the beginning of weaning; however, a long co-feeding phase is recommended. Pyloric caeca were observed at day 30 (13.6 ± 1.6 mm). These results provide valuable information on S. rivoliana larvae biology and digestive physiology, which should be useful to improve cultivation techniques and identify ecological features involved in ontogeny. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Cuenca-Soria C.A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Cuenca-Soria C.A.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Alvarez-Gonzalez C.A.,Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical | Ortiz-Galindo J.L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 4 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

The characterisation of digestive proteases in native freshwater fish such as the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus provides scientific elements that may be used to design balanced feed that matches with the digestive capacity of the fish. The purpose of this study was to characterise the digestive proteases, including the effect of the pH and the temperature on enzyme activity and stability, as well as the effect of inhibitors using multienzymatic extracts of the stomach and intestine of C. urophthalmus juveniles. Results showed that the optimum activities of the acid and alkaline proteases occurred at pH values of 3 and 9, respectively, whereas their optimum temperatures were 55 and 65 °C, respectively. The acid proteases were most stable at pH values of 2-3 and at temperatures of 35-45 °C, whereas the alkaline proteases were most stable at pH values of 6-9 and at 25-55 °C. The inhibition assays recorded a residual activity of 4 % with pepstatin A for the acid proteases. The inhibition of the alkaline proteases was greater than 80 % with TPCK, TLCK, EDTA and ovalbumin, and of 60 and 43.8 % with PMSF and SBT1, respectively. The results obtained in this study make it possible to state that C. urophthalmus has a sufficiently complete digestive enzyme machinery to degrade food items characteristic of an omnivorous fish species, although specimens showed a tendency to carnivory. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Frias-Quintana C.A.,Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical | Marquez-Couturier G.,Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical | Alvarez-Gonzalez C.A.,Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical | Tovar-Ramirez D.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 6 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Changes in digestive enzyme activity and histology were studied in Atractosteus tropicus embryos, larvae and juvenile periods. Alkaline protease, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, lipase and α-amylase were detected in all periods and gradually increased until reaching the maximum peak in juveniles; meanwhile, acid protease was first detected at 5 days after hatching (dah) when first feeding started and trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities were detected from 19 dah, their values being increased gradually until reaching a maximum value at 31 dah. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities increased from yolk-sac absorption (3 dah) until day 31 after hatching. Zymogram for acid protease showed two bands in active forms (0.4 and 0.5 Rfs) from day 5 after hatching and a third protease form (0.3 Rf) that appears at 31 dah. Two active forms (26.3 and 24.9 kDa) were detected using SDS-PAGE alkaline proteases zymogram at 5 dah, and an additional active form (44.1 kDa) was detected at 7 dah. Regarding the histological development of the digestive system, the exocrine pancreas containing zymogen granules was already visible at 3 dah, whereas at 5 dah first gastric glands were already detected in the stomach. Between 7 and 9 dah, the digestive tract of A. tropicus resembled that of a juvenile specimen with a well-developed and short oesophagus, stomach divided into a glandular and non-glandular (pyloric) stomach, folded intestine with pyloric caeca and a well-developed spiral valve (posterior intestine). Considering this, larvae of A. tropicus are capable of digesting several foods from yolk absorption (3 dah), maximizing its activities at 15 dah, age at which the organisms maximize its capability to absorb nutrients from diets provided. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Melgar Valdes C.E.,Colegio de Mexico | Melgar Valdes C.E.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Macias E.B.,Colegio de Mexico | Alvarez-Gonzalez C.A.,Laboratorio Of Acuicultura Tropical | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2013

Microorganisms effect with probiotic potential in water quality and growth of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in intensive culture. The use of probiotics has gained acceptance in aquaculture, particularly in maintaining water quality and enhancing growth in organisms. This study analyzed the effect of the commercial (EM™, Japan) natural product composed by (Rhodopseudomonas palus-tris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) added to the water, in order to determine its effect in water quality, sediment and growth of L. vannamei under intensive culture. The evaluation included three treatments with a weekly addition of EM: i) tanks without probiotics (C), ii) tanks with a dose of 4L/ha (EM1) and iii) tanks with a dose of 10L/ha (EM2). The treatment C was carried out three times, while treatments EM1 and EM2 were carried out four times. A total of 4 350 shrimps were measured for total length and weight, to calculate total and porcentual weight gain, daily weight gain, specific growth rate (TCE), and food conversion factor (FCA); besides, the survival rate was estimated. The use of probiotics allowed a shorter harvest time in treatments EM1 (90d) and EM2 (105d) with relation to the treatment C (120d). Treatments EM1 and EM2 were within the recommended intervals for culture, with respect to treatment C. The use of probiotic bacteria significantly regulated pH (EM1, 8.03±0.33; EM2, 7.77±0.22; C, 9.08±0.35) and reduced nitrate concentration (EM1, 0.64±0.25mg/L; EM2, 0.39±0.26mg/L; C, 0.71mg/L). Water pH mostly explained the variance with respect to the treatments. Treatment EM2 presented the greatest removal of organic matter (1.77±0.45%), whereas the contents of extractable phosphorus increased significantly in treatment EM1 with 21.6±7.99mg/kg and in treatment EM2 with 21.6±8.45mg/kg with control relation (14.3±5.47). The shrimp growth was influenced by dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the sediment, establishing that salinity was the most important variable in the weight with a negative association. Treatment EM1 recorded an improved TCE (2.69±0.35%/d) and FCA (1.46±0.20) with relation to the control treatment (TCE, 1.88±0.25%/d; FCA, 2.13±0.48). Survival was significantly greater in treatments containing probiotics with 61±8.76% and 60±10.5% for EM1 and EM2, respectively. This study indicated the positive effect obtained with the use of this commercial probiotic, to improve culture conditions and growth parameters in an intensive culture of L. vannamei.

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