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Vieira-Pinto M.,Royal University | Morais L.,Royal University | Caleja C.,Royal University | Caleja C.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro | And 6 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2011

The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of Salmonella sp.-induced diseases is a matter of increasing concern to public health. However, to date, reports on the occurrence of Salmonella sp. in game hunted for human consumption are very limited. The current study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella sp. in fecal samples of wild boars and wild rabbits hunted in Northern Portugal. The results show that 22% of the (17/77) wild boar and 48% (38/80) of the wild rabbit presented Salmonella sp. in their feces. Two serovars were identified from samples of wild boars: Salmonella Typhimurium (65%) and Salmonella Rissen (35%). Five serovars were identified from wild rabbit samples: Salmonella Rissen (29%), Salmonella Enteritidis (26%), Salmonella Havana (24%), Salmonella Typhimurium (16%), and Salmonella Derby (5%). These results confirm the importance of wild boar and wild rabbit as carriers of pathogenic Salmonella serovars. Hence, they could represent sources of infection not only for animals (wild and domestic) but also for humans. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Andreoletti O.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Orge L.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Benestad S.L.,National Veterinary Institute | Beringue V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011

Atypical/Nor98 scrapie was first identified in 1998 in Norway. It is now considered as a worldwide disease of small ruminants and currently represents a significant part of the detected transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) cases in Europe. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases were reported in ARR/ARR sheep, which are highly resistant to BSE and other small ruminants TSE agents. The biology and pathogenesis of the Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent in its natural host is still poorly understood. However, based on the absence of detectable abnormal PrP in peripheral tissues of affected individuals, human and animal exposure risk to this specific TSE agent has been considered low. In this study we demonstrate that infectivity can accumulate, even if no abnormal PrP is detectable, in lymphoid tissues, nerves, and muscles from natural and/or experimental Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases. Evidence is provided that, in comparison to other TSE agents, samples containing Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity could remain PrPSc negative. This feature will impact detection of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases in the field, and highlights the need to review current evaluations of the disease prevalence and potential transmissibility. Finally, an estimate is made of the infectivity loads accumulating in peripheral tissues in both Atypical/Nor98 and classical scrapie cases that currently enter the food chain. The results obtained indicate that dietary exposure risk to small ruminants TSE agents may be higher than commonly believed. © 2011 Andréoletti et al. Source


Duarte I.M.,Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra | Almeida M.T.M.,University of Minho | Duarte M.M.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Brown D.J.F.,Central Laboratory of General Ecology | Neilson R.,Scottish Crop Research Institute
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

A PCR-RFLP assay was developed for the identification of trichodorid nematodes belonging to Nanidorus, Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus genera. Using the variability of the 18S SSU rDNA gene, this method provides a new molecular diagnosis tool which allows identification within mixed samples of trichodorid and non-trichodorid species, differentiation of juveniles, and represents an alternative to the difficult and time consuming phenotyping of similar species. Based on the alignment of previously obtained 18S rDNA nucleotide sequences of trichodorids from Portugal, a pair of selective primers was designed in conserved regions to allow the amplification of a variable region located at the 3' end of the gene in all known Portuguese species. The 615bp PCR product showed nucleotide variability enabling the generation of restriction fragment patterns which were consistent among populations of the same species but allowed discrimination of trichodorids at the species level. The proposed protocol was tested and proved effective with 12 trichodorid species from Portugal (N. minor, P. allius, P. anemones, P. divergens, P. hispanus, P. pachydermus, P. porosus, T. beirensis, T. lusitanicus, T. primitivus and two other Trichodorus species, A and B) and six non-indigenous trichodorid populations (N. minor, P. allius, P. anemones, P. pachydermus, P. porosus and T. primitivus). © 2010 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP. Source


Goncalves R.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Mariano I.,Novo A/S | Nunez A.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge | Branco S.,University of Evora | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

An outbreak of severe respiratory disease in a goat herd was associated with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Mycoplasma arginini, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with mortality rates exceeding 20% in kids. Post mortem features in affected kids included severe pleuropneumonia, lung consolidation, large quantities of pleural fluid and pericarditis. This is the first report of atypical proliferative pneumonia in goats in Portugal. © 2009. Source


Freitas A.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Barbosa J.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Ramos F.,University of Coimbra
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2012

An amoxicillin stability study was performed under different pH (1, 3 and 5) and temperature (4 °C, 22 °C, 37 °C and 55 °C) conditions and for incurred samples stored at -20 °C with the goals of better understanding amoxicillin degradation and characterising its main degradation products (amoxicilloic acid and amoxicillin diketopiperazine). The analytical methodology used consisted of a simple extraction using phosphate buffer (pH 8) with sodium chloride followed by a sample clean-up using OASIS® HLB cartridges and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Amoxicillin was found to be greatly unstable at temperatures above 22 °C for all pH values studied, so it was recommended that biological samples should be frozen at temperatures below -70 °C until analysis of the amoxicillin residues. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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