Sotto il Monte Giovanni XXIII, Italy
Sotto il Monte Giovanni XXIII, Italy

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Aschbacher R.,Laboratorio Aziendale Of Microbiologia E Virologia | Pagani E.,Laboratorio Aziendale Of Microbiologia E Virologia | Confalonieri M.,U.O. di Microbiologia | Farina C.,Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Papa Giovanni XXIII | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control | Year: 2016

Background: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Method: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries. Results: High variability of MDR colonization has been reported within and especially between European countries. Only a few surveillance studies have been performed in Italian LTCFs; these show MRSA colonization prevalence of 7.8-38.7 % for residents and 5.2-7.0 % for staff members, ESBL prevalence of 49.0-64.0 % for residents and 5.2-14.5 % for staff and prevalence of CPE of 1.0-6.3 % for residents and 0.0-1.5 % for staff. In Italian LTCFs, as well as in other European countries, the most prevalent ESBLs from surveillance or clinical Escherichia coli isolates were found to be CTX-M-type enzymes, particularly CTX-M-15, expressed by the pandemic ST131 clonal group; this lineage also expresses carbapenemase genes of the bla VIM and bla KPC types. Various risk factors for colonization of residents by MDR bacteria were identified. Conclusions: The limited data from Italian LTCFs confirms these settings as important reservoirs for MDR organisms, allowing important considerations regarding the infection risk by these organisms. Nevertheless, more extended and countrywide screening studies for MDR colonization in Italian LTCFs are required. To promote further studies of various microbiological aspects related to LTCFs, the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani; AMCLI) in 2016 has set up a new Working Group for the Study of Infections in LTCFs (Gruppo di Lavoro per lo Studio delle Infezioni nelle Residenze Sanitarie Assistite e Strutture Territoriali assimilabili; GLISTer), consisting of Clinical Microbiologists represented by the authors of this review article. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | Laboratorio Aziendale Of Microbiologia E Virologia, U.O. di Microbiologia, Po Spirito Santo Laboratorio Analisi, Science Laboratorio Of Microbiologia and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Antimicrobial resistance and infection control | Year: 2016

Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries.High variability of MDR colonization has been reported within and especially between European countries. Only a few surveillance studies have been performed in Italian LTCFs; these show MRSA colonization prevalence of 7.8-38.7% for residents and 5.2-7.0% for staff members, ESBL prevalence of 49.0-64.0% for residents and 5.2-14.5% for staff and prevalence of CPE of 1.0-6.3% for residents and 0.0-1.5% for staff. In Italian LTCFs, as well as in other European countries, the most prevalent ESBLs from surveillance or clinical The limited data from Italian LTCFs confirms these settings as important reservoirs for MDR organisms, allowing important considerations regarding the infection risk by these organisms. Nevertheless, more extended and countrywide screening studies for MDR colonization in Italian LTCFs are required. To promote further studies of various microbiological aspects related to LTCFs, the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani; AMCLI) in 2016 has set up a new Working Group for the Study of Infections in LTCFs (Gruppo di Lavoro per lo Studio delle Infezioni nelle Residenze Sanitarie Assistitee Strutture Territoriali assimilabili; GLISTer), consisting of Clinical Microbiologists represented by the authors of this review article.


Farina C.,U.S.C. Microbiologia e Virologia | Fazii P.,U.S.C. Dermatologia | Imberti G.,Laboratorio Microbiologia e Virologia Clinica | Lombardi G.,Science Microbiologia e Virologia | And 18 more authors.
New Microbiologica | Year: 2015

Dermatomycoses due to Trichophyton violaceum are described in Mediterranean Countries, North Africa and in the Horn of Africa where T. soudanense is present too, but it was rare until few years ago in Italy. Aim of the present study was to evaluate an Italian multicenter 9 year (2005-2013) experience concerning these re-emerging pathogens. Fifty three fungal strains were sent from clinical laboratories to the Medical Mycology Committee (CoSM) - Italian Association of Clinical Microbiology (AMCLI) for mycological confirmation. Strains were identified as T. violaceum (23) and T. soudanense (30) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. These dermatophytes present epidemiological (high rate of inter-human transmission, high risk among adopted children coming from countries of either the Horn of Africa or Sub-Saharan Africa also in outbreaks of tinea capitis) and clinical peculiarities (reduced alopecia, presence of exudative lesions) confirming the originality of these "imported" dermatophyte infections.


Buoro S.,Laboratorio Analisi Chimico Cliniche | Ottomano C.,Unita Operativa di Diagnostica Ematochimica | Esposito S.A.,Laboratorio Analisi Chimico Cliniche | Gherardi P.,Laboratorio Analisi Chimico Cliniche | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Background: We evaluated the performance of Sysmex UF- 1000i for cell counting and differential cell count, as well as for assessment of bacteria load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a potential approach for the rapid screening of meningitis or bacterial encephalitis. Methods: We analyzed 77 consecutive CSF samples, 34 of which (44%) displayed leukocyte count >5 white blood cell (WBQ/̌iL with optical microscopy. Results on the UF-1000i were compared with those obtained by microscopic analysis. Imprecision was evaluated by testing three CSF samples with leukocyte values between 3.5 and 28.8 WBC/nL in 10 repli- cates. Carry-over was evaluated with the Broughton formula on three CSF pools with leukocyte counts between 93.5 and 132.5 WBC/̌L. Linearity was assessed according to CLSI document EP6-A. In the presence of bacteria, identification and antibiogram were performed with Vitex (Biomerieux), except for Neisserie meningitidis (ApiNH, Biomerieux). Sensitivity tests were performed with Vitex and disc diffusion. Results: Optimal correlation was found between UF-1000i and optical microscopy, displaying Pearson's correlation of 0.99 and mean bias of-3.5 WBC/̌L (95% Cl, from -7.0 to 0.0 WBC/nL). Imprecision varied between 12 and 16%. Li- nearity was excellent, 4-278 WBC/nL. Carry-over was neg- ligible. ROC analysis yielded AUC of 0.99 for both WBC and bacterial counts. The agreement at threshold >4 WBC/nL was 0.91, with sensitivity and specificity of 1.00 and 0.84. At S19 bacteriǎnL cut-off, accuracy was 0.98, sensitivity 1.00 and specificity 0.97. Conclusions: According to these results, CSF screening with UF-I000i seems a reliable approach in terms of instrument performance, turnaround time and overall laboratory effi- ciency.

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