Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo

Lisbon, Portugal

Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo

Lisbon, Portugal

Time filter

Source Type

Antunes V.,University of Lisbon | Candeias A.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | Candeias A.,University of Évora | Oliveira M.J.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

The purpose of this work is to characterize Portuguese painting ground layers from the 15th and 16th centuries (1450-1600), focusing particularly on the Coimbra, Lisbon, and Viseu workshops. Calcium sulfate, used regularly in these layers is common in the Iberian Peninsula as a natural resource. Its use is now confirmed, as already studied in Spanish paintings, and it was prepared generally by addition of animal glue. Besides the common esthetic language to the various painting workshops at the time, chalk/calcite (calcium carbonate), gypsum (di-hydrated calcium sulfate), and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate) ground layers have specificities that allow characterizing different compounds. The cross-sections from a set of six groups of Portuguese paintings were examined by optical microscopy and micro-confocal Raman and Raman spectroscopic mapping imaged the location of the different compounds in the cross-section. Results were integrated with those obtained by micro-X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on the same samples. In most cases, the ground layers are made of calcium sulfate in the form of the so-called gesso grosso (mainly anhydrite with small amounts of gypsum). Differently, the Viseu paintings have calcium carbonate ground layers. These results put in evidence differences between the examined groups giving important information on the various workshop practices and also on the possible future conservative intervention on the paintings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Ferreira T.,University of Évora | Moreiras H.,University of Évora | Manhita A.,University of Évora | Tomaz P.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | And 3 more authors.
Microscopy and Microanalysis | Year: 2014

A 16th century liturgical cope belonging to D. Teotónio of Braganza (collection of the Museum of Évora, ME 172/1) was selected for a material study. The cope is made of a variety of materials that include two different types of metal threads, dyed silk yarns, and vegetable yarns used in the weft. Several samples from different points representing the different metal thread types and colored silk yarns were collected. Stereomicroscopy (optical microscopy) and scanning electron microscopy were used for morphological analysis of the textile fibers and evaluation of metal thread degradation products. Evaluation of mordants and metal thread composition was carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detection was used for dye identification, which allowed the determination of three different red dye sources and one yellow dye source in the colored silk yarns. Although different fabrics were used in the manufacturing of the cope, similarities identified in the characterization of the materials suggest that a single workshop was involved in its making. © © Microscopy Society of America 2014.


Mendes M.T.,University of Évora | Mendes M.T.,National Laboratory for Civil Engineering | Pereira S.,National Laboratory for Civil Engineering | Ferreira T.,University of Évora | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2015

In order to aid research, improve preservation actions and develop better options for future interventions it is important to know the preservation materials and procedures adopted throughout the past and especially the ones being adopted nowadays. A survey to specialists working in situ in preservation and restoration of glazed decorative tiles has been performed aiming at getting insight on their type of training, work portfolio, opinions, the current materials and procedures used in the diverse phases of a preservation intervention (diagnosis, cleaning, consolidation, bonding fragments and fixing of glazed layer, volumetric and chromatic reintegration, final coating, resetting of tiles and manufacture of replicas) and the criteria/factors that support the specialists choices.


Relvas C.,University of Évora | Nunes M.,University of Évora | Santos M.,University of Évora | Mourinha P.,University of Évora | And 3 more authors.
Science, Technology and Cultural Heritage - Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, 2014 | Year: 2014

Three paper samples made of rag fibres, rag and bleached softwood fibres, and mechanical pulp, presenting foxing stains, were studied by non-destructive techniques. Fibre disruption was observed on fox spots on one of the samples, while accumulation of calcite particles occurred on another sample. The third sample presented no morphological alteration of the surface on the foxing stains. The two wood pulp papers contained kaolinite as filler and muscovite was also detected, probably due to contamination of kaolinite. Calcium sulphate is also present in one of these samples. Calcite was detected in the rag paper. Either resinaceous or proteinaceous materials were used as sizing agents. EDXRF analysis showed no differences, within the standard deviation, for the iron and copper contents in the foxed and unfoxed areas. ATR-FT-IR has shown to be an adequate technique to detect biotic attack on the stains. Five bacterial strains were isolated either from the foxed and unfoxed areas and one fungal strain belonging to the Penicillium genera was isolated from the foxed areas. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Nunes M.,University of Évora | Relvas C.,University of Évora | Figueira F.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | Campelo J.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | And 4 more authors.
Microscopy and Microanalysis | Year: 2015

This work comprises the use of a multi-analytical approach combined with microbiological studies to characterize six paper samples, containing foxing stains, from the 20th century, regarding their cellulose matrix, fillers, and sizing materials, and to evaluate possible paper degradation that might have occurred during the foxing stains. Photography under different illuminations and optical microscopy were used for morphological characterization of the paper samples and foxing stains. Scanning electron microscopy coupled energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was of particular importance for defining the presence of fiber disorder and disruption on the surface of some of the stains, and localized accumulations of mineral-like particles on the surface of others. SEM-EDS, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) were used for the identification of mineral fillers, whereas sizing agents were analyzed using ATR-FT-IR. EDXRF results showed that no differences, within the standard deviation, were found in iron and copper contents between the foxed and unfoxed areas. Fungi belonging to the genus Penicillium spp. were found in all the paper samples. Unfoxed areas presented lower contamination than the foxed areas. © Microscopy Society of America 2015.


Cardeira A.M.,University of Lisbon | Cardeira A.M.,New University of Lisbon | Longelin S.,New University of Lisbon | Costa S.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | And 5 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2016

This case study illustrates the analytical characterization of 12 academic nude paintings by Veloso Salgado, made between 1883 and 1893. The study was done with in situ methods (infrared reflectography and EDXRF) and benchtop equipment (Raman and FTIR microscopes and SEM-EDS). Infrared reflectography revealed underdrawings, painting style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. Analytical techniques allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, barium white, zinc white, yellow ochre, chrome yellow, zinc yellow, vermilion, synthetic ultramarine blue, cerulean blue, Prussian blue, viridian, green earth, Paris green, red ochre, raw umber and lamp black. These results provide valuable information on Salgado's palette and his artistic production technique and allow the distinction between palettes used in Lisbon and Paris and consequently, technical interchanges between both Academies. Finally, this study intends to start a systematic analytical study of the Faculty of Fine Arts' collection, allowing the characterization of many other authors and their influences for the development of painting methodology in this Academy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Mendes M.T.,National Laboratory for Civil Engineering | Mendes M.T.,University of Évora | Esteves L.,Museu nacional do Azulejo | Ferreira T.A.,University of Évora | And 5 more authors.
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2016

Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic–inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV–Temp–RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Antunes V.,University of Lisbon | Antunes V.,New University of Lisbon | Candeias A.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | Candeias A.,University of Évora | And 9 more authors.
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2016

Gregório Lopes (c. 1490–1550) was one of the most prominent painters of the renaissance and Mannerism in Portugal. The painting “Mater Misericordiae” made for the Sesimbra Holy House of Mercy, circa 1535–1538, is one of the most significant works of the artist, and his only painting on this theme, being also one of the most significant Portuguese paintings of sixteenth century. The recent restoration provided the possibility to study materially the painting for the first time, with a multianalytical methodology incorporating portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometry detectors. The analytical study was complemented by infrared reflectography, allowing the study of the underdrawing technique and also by dendrochronology to confirm the date of the wooden panels (1535–1538). The results of this study were compared with previous ones on the painter’s workshop, and significant differences and similitudes were found in the materials and techniques used. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Pereira F.,New University of Lisbon | Pereira F.,University of Lisbon | Silva R.J.C.,New University of Lisbon | Monge Soares A.M.,University of Lisbon | And 5 more authors.
Microscopy and Microanalysis | Year: 2015

Archaeological materials present unique records on natural processes allowing the study of long-term material behaviors such as structural modifications and degradation mechanisms. The present work is focused on the chemical and microstructural characterization of four prehistoric arsenical copper artifacts. These artifacts were characterized by micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis, micro-X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction. Cu3As is the expected intermetallic arsenide in arsenical copper alloys, reported in the literature as exhibiting a hexagonal crystallographic structure. However, a cubic Cu3As phase was identified by X-ray diffraction in all of our analyzed archaeological artifacts, while the hexagonal Cu3As phase was clearly identified only in the artifact with higher arsenic content. Occurrence of the cubic arsenide in these particular objects, suggests that it was precipitated due to long-term aging at room temperature, which points to the need of a redefinition of the Cu-As equilibrium phase constitution. These results highlight the importance of understanding the impact of structural aging for the assessment of original properties of archaeological arsenical copper artifacts, such as hardness or color. © Microscopy Society of America 2015


Cardeira A.M.,University of Lisbon | Longelin S.,University of Lisbon | Costa S.,Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo | Costa S.,University of Évora | And 4 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2014

This case study reveals the analytical characterisation carried out on 'D'Aprés Cormon' (1891) by Veloso Salgado, a copy of 'Caïn' (1880) by Fernando Cormon, belonging nowadays to Musée d'Orsay. Infrared Reflectography made in situ revealed underdrawing grid that was used to transpose the original painting to a smaller scale, pictorial style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. In situ EDXRF analysis together with Raman microscopy allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, titanium white, yellow ochre, vermilion, ultramarine and lamp black. These results provide valuable information about the Salgado's palette and his production technique. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Loading Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo collaborators
Loading Laboratorio Jose Of Figueiredo collaborators