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Scofield V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Jacques S.M.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Jacques S.M.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Guimaraes J.R.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Temperature and nutrient concentrations regulate aquatic bacterial metabolism. However, few studies have focused on the effect of the interaction between these factors on bacterial processes, and none have been performed in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the main and interactive effects of changes in water temperature and N and P concentrations on bacterioplankton production (BP), respiration (BR) and growth efficiency (BGE) in tropical coastal lagoons. We used a factorial design with 3 levels of water temperature (25, 30 and 35 °C) and 4 levels of N and/or P additions (Control, N, P and NP additions) in five tropical humic lagoons. When data for all lagoons were pooled together, a weak interaction was observed between the increase in water temperature and the addition of nutrients. Water temperature alone had the greatest impact on bacterial metabolism by increasing BR, decreasing BP, and decreasing BGE. An increase of 1°C lead to an increase of ~ 4% in BR, a decrease of ~ 0.9% in BP, and a decrease of ~ 4% in BGE. When data were analyzed separately, lagoons responded differently to nutrient additions depending on DOC concentration. Lagoons with lowest DOC concentrations showed the strongest responses to nutrient additions: BP increased in response to N, P and their interaction, BR increased in response to N and the interaction between N and P, and BGE was negatively affected, mainly by the interaction between N and P additions. Lagoons with the highest DOC concentrations showed almost no significant relationship with nutrient additions. Taken together, these results show that different environmental drivers impact bacterial processes at different scales. Changes of bacterial metabolism related to the increase of water temperature are consistent between lagoons, therefore their consequences can be predicted at a regional scale, while the effect of nutrient inputs is specific to different lagoons but seems to be related to the DOC concentration. © 2015 Scofield, Jacques, Guimaraes and Farjalla.

Gelcich S.,Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global LINCGLOBAL | Gelcich S.,University of Santiago de Chile | Fernandez M.,Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global LINCGLOBAL | Fernandez M.,University of Santiago de Chile | And 5 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2012

Territorial user rights for fisheries have been advocated as a way to achieve sustainable resource management. However, few researchers have empirically assessed their potential as ancillary marine conservation instruments by comparing them to no-take marine protected areas. In kelp (Lessonia trabeculata) forests of central Chile, we compared species richness, density, and biomass of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes among territorial-user-right areas with low-level and high-level enforcement, no-take marine protected areas, and open-access areas in 42 100-m subtidal transects. We also assessed structural complexity of the kelp forest and substratum composition. Multivariate randomized permutation tests indicated macroinvertebrate and reef fish communities associated with the different access regimes differed significantly. Substratum composition and structural complexity of kelp forest did not differ among access regimes. Univariate analyses showed species richness, biomass, and density of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes were greater in highly enforced territorial-user-right areas and no-take marine protected areas than in open-access areas. Densities of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes of economic importance were not significantly different between highly enforced territorial-user-right and no-take marine protected areas. Densities of economically important macroinvertebrates in areas with low-level enforcement were significantly lower than those in areas with high-level enforcement and no-take marine protected areas but were significantly higher than in areas with open access. Territorial-user-right areas could be important ancillary conservation instruments if they are well enforced. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

Carrevedo M.L.,University of Chile | Carrevedo M.L.,Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity IEB | Carrevedo M.L.,Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global LINCGLOBAL | Frugone M.,Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global LINCGLOBAL | And 11 more authors.
Holocene | Year: 2015

Central Chile is heavily exploited for mineral and water resources, with agriculture and large urban populations all creating intensive landscape use. Few records of past environmental and climate change are available that afford a broader context. To aid in this assessment, we present a 700-year reconstruction from Laguna del Maule (LdM) in the high Andes of central Chile based on sedimentological, geochemical, diatom and pollen analyses. The age model is based on 210Pb/137Cs and 14C dating tied into known volcanic eruptions. Sedimentology consists of organic-rich sediments and diatom oozes with several interspersed volcanic-rich facies and two tephra deposits. Sediment geochemistry exhibits increased productivity (high Br/Ti, biosilica) and more dominant oxic conditions (high Fe/Mn) from AD 1300 to 1400 and from AD 1650 to 1850, likely during periods of relatively lower lake levels and better development of littoral environments. However, during this later period, high elevation vegetation was dominant, indicative of regional cooler/wetter conditions. In contrast, sediments deposited from AD 1850 to 1930 evidence decreased productivity and increased anoxic lake bottom conditions. The ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) in LdM is characterized by significant variations in lake dynamics and hydrology with cooler/wetter conditions (AD 1570–1700), major environmental changes in the 18th century and ending at ca. AD 1850. LdM record documents the impact of the LIA in the southern hemisphere and stresses the global nature of this climate period. Large changes in lake dynamics and diatoms assemblages during the 20th century could be related to anthropogenic impacts, but recent changes in climate patterns cannot be excluded. © The Author(s) 2015

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