Parra M.A.,Laboratorio Integrado Of Calidad Ambiental Lica |
Santiago J.L.,CIEMAT |
Martin F.,CIEMAT |
Martilli A.,CIEMAT |
Santamaria J.M.,Laboratorio Integrado Of Calidad Ambiental Lica
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010
The representativeness of point measurements in urban areas is limited due to the strong heterogeneity of the atmospheric flows in cities. To get information on air quality in the gaps between measurement points, and have a 3D field of pollutant concentration, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models can be used. However, unsteady simulations during time periods of the order of months, often required for regulatory purposes, are not possible for computational reasons. The main objective of this study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the air quality in a real urban area during large time periods by means of steady CFD simulations. One steady simulation for each inlet wind direction was performed and factors like the number of cars inside each street, the length of streets and the wind speed and direction were taken into account to compute the pollutant concentration. This approach is only valid in winter time when the pollutant concentrations are less affected by atmospheric chemistry. A model based on the steady-state Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) and standard k-ε turbulence model was used to simulate a set of 16 different inlet wind directions over a real urban area (downtown Pamplona, Spain). The temporal series of NOx and PM10 and the spatial differences in pollutant concentration of NO2 and BTEX obtained were in agreement with experimental data. Inside urban canopy, an important influence of urban boundary layer dynamics on the pollutant concentration patterns was observed. Large concentration differences between different zones of the same square were found. This showed that concentration levels measured by an automatic monitoring station depend on its location in the street or square, and a modelling methodology like this is useful to complement the experimental information. On the other hand, this methodology can also be applied to evaluate abatement strategies by redistributing traffic emissions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez-Miqueo L.,Laboratorio Integrado Of Calidad Ambiental Lica |
Elustondo D.,Laboratorio Integrado Of Calidad Ambiental Lica |
Lasheras E.,Laboratorio Integrado Of Calidad Ambiental Lica |
Santamaria JM.,Laboratorio Integrado Of Calidad Ambiental Lica
Chemosphere | Year: 2010
A biomonitoring survey using the moss species Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was conducted in the surroundings of two steel plants located in the North of Spain. Levels of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and N were determined. Very high concentrations in the areas of study were detected when compared to nearby unaffected regions. Similar trends were observed for all the elements in the differently orientated transects, showing an appreciable influence of the NW prevailing winds of the region in the dispersion of pollutants, as well as a clear decreasing gradient in the concentrations of metals in mosses within a distance of 1500 meters from the facilities. A differentiation between the elements emitted by the chimney as result of the industrial activity (V, Cr, Ni, Cu and As) and those with a high presence in steel slag deposits (Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was observed. The range of contamination was also established by means of the Contamination Factor, indicating a category 4 out of 6 categories, which shows the high levels reported in the areas of study. A different dynamic was registered for nitrogen regarding the rest of the heavy metals analysed except for Hg, probably due to the elevated volatility and mobility of both elements, as well as their high persistence in the atmosphere. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.