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Catalani E.,University of Tuscia | Amadori M.,Laboratorio Of Immunologia Cellulare | Vitali A.,University of Tuscia | Bernabucci U.,University of Tuscia | And 2 more authors.
Cell Stress and Chaperones

The study was aimed at assessing whether the peri-parturient period is associated with changes of intracellular and plasma inducible heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 kDa molecular weight in dairy cows, and to establish possible relationships between Hsp72, metabolic, and immunological parameters subjected to changes around calving. The study was carried out on 35 healthy peri-parturient Holstein cows. Three, two, and one week before the expected calving, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after calving, body conditions score (BCS) was measured and blood samples were collected to separate plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Concentrations of Hsp72 in PBMC and plasma increased sharply after calving. In the post-calving period, BCS and plasma glucose declined, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased. The proliferative responses of PBMC to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) declined progressively after calving. The percentage of PBMC expressing CD14 receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLR)-4 increased and decreased in the early postpartum period, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive relationships between Hsp72 and NEFA, and between PBMC proliferation in response to LPS and the percentage of PBMC expressing TLR-4. Conversely, significant negative relationships were found between LPS-triggered proliferation of PBMC and both intracellular and plasma Hsp72. Literature data and changes of metabolic and immunological parameters reported herein authorize a few interpretative hypotheses and encourage further studies aimed at assessing possible cause and effect relationships between changes of PBMC and circulating Hsp72, metabolic, and immune parameters in dairy cows. © 2010 Cell Stress Society International. Source

Catalani E.,University of Tuscia | Amadori M.,Laboratorio Of Immunologia Cellulare | Vitali A.,University of Tuscia | Lacetera N.,University of Tuscia
Journal of Dairy Science

This preliminary study aimed at assessing whether the in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to lipopolysaccharide permits individual characterization of periparturient dairy cows, and whether this parameter may be associated with incidence of infections and with some of the single nucleotide polymorphisms located on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. Based on the average response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to lipopolysaccharide over 7 time points during the transition period, 31 cows were categorized as low (LO), medium (MED), and high (HI) responders. This categorization identified 7 HI, 19 MED, and 5 LO cows, respectively. Genomic DNA was genotyped for P-226 C>G and E3+2021 C>T TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Monitoring of the health status revealed that 8 of the 31 cows suffered from clinical mastitis, metritis, or interdigital dermatitis during the first 60. d in milk. The association study pointed out that none of the HI cows and all of the LO cows developed an infection; cows with the CCGT haplotype remained healthy and none of them belonged to the LO responder category. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Vitali A.,University of Tuscia | Lana E.,Servizio Veterinario ASL di Cremona | Amadori M.,Laboratorio Of Immunologia Cellulare | Bernabucci U.,University of Tuscia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science

The study was based on data collected during 5 yr (2003–2007) and was aimed at assessing the effects of the month, slaughter house of destination (differing for stocking density, openings, brightness, and cooling device types), length of the journey, and temperature– humidity index (THI) on mortality of heavy slaughter pigs (approximately 160 kg live weight) during transport and lairage. Data were obtained from 24,098 journeys and 3,676,153 pigs transported from 1,618 farms to 3 slaughter houses. Individual shipments were the unit of observation. The terms dead on arrival (DOA) and dead in pen (DIP) refer to pigs that died during transport and in lairage at the abattoir before slaughtering, respectively. These 2 variables were assessed as the dependent counts in separate univariate Poisson regressions. The independent variables assessed univariately in each set of regressions were month of shipment, slaughter house of destination, time traveled, and each combination of the month with the time traveled. Two separate piecewise regressions were done. One used DOA counts within THI levels over pigs transported as a dependent ratio and the second used DIP counts within THI levels over pigs from a transport kept in lairage as a dependent ratio. The THI was the sole independent variable in each case. The month with the greatest frequency of deaths was July with a risk ratio of 1.22 (confidence interval: 1.06–1.36; P < 0.05) and 1.27 (confidence interval: 1.06–1.51; P < 0.05) for DOA and DIP, respectively. The lower mortality risk ratios for DOA and DIP were recorded for January and March (P < 0.05). The aggregated data of the summer (June, July, and August) versus non-summer (January, March, September, and November) months showed a greater risk of pigs dying during the hot season when considering both transport and lairage (P < 0.05). The mortality risk ratio of DIP was lower at the slaughter house with the lowest stocking density (0.64 m2/100 kg live weight), large open windows on the roof and sidewalls, low brightness (40 lx) lights, and high-pressure sprinklers as cooling devices. The mortality risk ratio of DOA increased significantly for journeys longer than 2 h, whereas no relationship was found between length of transport and DIP. The piecewise analysis pointed out that 78.5 and 73.6 THI were the thresholds above which the mortality rate increased significantly for DOA and DIP, respectively. These results may help the pig industry to improve the welfare of heavy slaughter pigs during transport and lairage. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

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