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Vespasiano, Brazil

Fraga V.G.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Guimaraes H.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Teixeira A.L.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Barbosa M.T.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 4 more authors.
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria | Year: 2015

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulated in neurodegenerative contexts. The polymorphism IL-6 -174 G > C influences release levels of this cytokine. We aimed to evaluate the influence of IL-6 -174 G > C on global cognitive score of a group with cognitive impairment no dementia in one year of follow-up. Methods: The subjects were categorized in two groups: short-term decline in global cognitive score and those with short-term stability or improvement. IL-6 174 G > C information were compared among these groups. Results: We observed that individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia with GGlower genotype were more frequent among global cognitive score non-decliners while carriers of at least one Chigher allele were more frequent in the group with global cognitive score decliners (p = 0.012; RR = 3.095 IC95% = 1.087-8.812). Conclusion: These results suggest that the higher expression of IL-6 gene may be an independent risk factor for cognitive decline among individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia. © 2015, Associacao Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. All rights reserved.

Dutra V.G.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | Dutra V.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Alves V.M.N.,University of Campinas | Olendzki A.N.,Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias | And 24 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a major cause of neonatal sepsis and is also associated with invasive and noninvasive infections in pregnant women and non-pregnant adults, elderly and patients with underlying medical conditions. Ten capsular serotypes have been recognized, and determination of their distribution within a specific population or geographical region is important as they are major targets for the development of vaccine strategies. We have evaluated the characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from individuals with infections or colonization by this microorganism, living in different geographic regions of Brazil.Methods: A total of 434 isolates were identified and serotyped by conventional phenotypic tests. The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method. Genes associated with resistance to erythromycin (ermA, ermB, mefA) and tetracycline (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO) as well as virulence-associated genes (bac, bca, lmb, scpB) were investigated using PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to examine the genetic diversity of macrolide-resistant and of a number of selected macrolide-susceptible isolates.Results: Overall, serotypes Ia (27.6%), II (19.1%), Ib (18.7%) and V (13.6%) were the most predominant, followed by serotypes IV (8.1%) and III (6.7%). All the isolates were susceptible to the beta-lactam antimicrobials tested and 97% were resistant to tetracycline. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were found in 4.1% and 3% of the isolates, respectively. Among the resistance genes investigated, tetM (99.3%) and tetO (1.8%) were detected among tetracycline-resistant isolates and ermA (39%) and ermB (27.6%) were found among macrolide-resistant isolates. The lmb and scpB virulence genes were detected in all isolates, while bac and bca were detected in 57 (13.1%) and 237 (54.6%) isolates, respectively. Molecular typing by PFGE showed that resistance to erythromycin was associated with a variety of clones.Conclusion: These findings indicate that GBS isolates circulating in Brazil have a variety of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and suggest that macrolide-resistant isolates may arise by both clonal spread and independent acquisition of resistance genes. © 2014 Dutra et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Marinho B.C.G.,Hospital Felicio Rocho | Marinho B.C.G.,University of Jose do Rosario Vellano | Guerra L.P.,Hospital Felicio Rocho | Drummond J.B.,Laboratorio Hermes Pardini | And 2 more authors.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia | Year: 2014

Osteoporotic fractures impose severe physical, psychosocial, and financial burden both to the patient and the society. Studies on the prevalence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Brazil show a wide variation, due to differences in sample size, the population studied, and methodologies. Few studies have been conducted in Brazil about the cost-effectiveness analyses of different intervention options aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Investigation and treatment strategies based on cost-effectiveness and scientific evidence are essential in the preparation of public health policies with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of fractures and, consequently, the direct and indirect costs associated with them. This article reviews the Brazilian burden of osteoporosis in terms of the prevalence and fractures attributable to the disease, the costs related to the investigation and management, as well as the impact of osteoporosis on the population as a whole and on affected individuals. © ABE&M todos os direitos reservados.

Aguiar V.R.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | De Castro A.M.,Laboratorio Hermes Pardini | Almeida V.C.O.,Laboratorio Hermes Pardini | Malta F.S.V.,Laboratorio Hermes Pardini | And 2 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2014

We have reported the allele frequencies of 15 STR loci, including the original 13 CODIS core loci, in over 100,000 Brazilian individuals. A new CODIS core loci has been proposed, but the recently established Brazilian Integrated Network of DNA Databases made a decision in 2010 to postpone the implementation of this new set of loci due to the lack of allele frequency data for the Brazilian population. We aimed to report allele frequencies of 20 loci, estimated from 96,400 Brazilian individuals undergoing paternity testing during 2011-2013. The percentage of missing data was less than 0.6% for all loci, except for CSF1PO (3.15%) and D7S820 (2.5%). The dropout rates estimated by the MicroDrop software were 0.013 for CSF1PO, 0.000037 for D7S820 and less than 0.000001 for other loci. Small missing data percentages and dropout rates reflect the high quality of the data. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rohlfs R.V.,University of California at Berkeley | Aguiar V.R.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Lohmueller K.E.,University of California at Los Angeles | Castro A.M.,Laboratorio Hermes Pardini | And 4 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2015

Large forensic databases provide an opportunity to compare observed empirical rates of genotype matching with those expected under forensic genetic models. A number of researchers have taken advantage of this opportunity to validate some forensic genetic approaches, particularly to ensure that estimated rates of genotype matching between unrelated individuals are indeed slight overestimates of those observed. However, these studies have also revealed systematic error trends in genotype probability estimates. In this analysis, we investigate these error trends and show how they result from inappropriate implementation of the Balding-Nichols model in the context of database-wide matching. Specifically, we show that in addition to accounting for increased allelic matching between individuals with recent shared ancestry, studies must account for relatively decreased allelic matching between individuals with more ancient shared ancestry. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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