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Zenteno-Cuevas R.,University of Veracruz | Cuevas-Cordoba B.,University of Veracruz | Cuellar A.,Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

Mutations at codons 526 and 531 in the rpoB gene and at 315 in the katG gene are considered diagnostic markers for resistance to rifampin and isoniazid in tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate three Taq- Man probes for the identification of these mutations in 138 respiratory samples positive for acid-fast bacilli, and 32 clinical isolates from a region with considerable levels of drug resistance. The specificities of the probes for the diagnosis of resistance to both drugs were 100%; however, the sensitivities were calculated to be 50% for isoniazid and 56% for rifampin. DNA sequencing of rpoB and katG; and the spoligotyping assay of the clinical isolates, confirmed the diversity of the mutations and the presence of 11 spoligotypes with a shared international type and eight unique spoligotypes. Analysis of the respiratory samples identified 22 (16%) as drug-resistant and 4 (3%) as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The diagnostic value of the TaqMan probes was compromised by the diversity of mutations found in the clinical isolates. This highlights the need for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for drug resistance prior to the use of molecular probes, especially in regions with significant levels of drug-resistant tuberculosis.


PubMed | University of Veracruz, Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica, Research Center istencia En Tecnologia seno Del Estado Of Jalisco, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos and Autonomous University of Guerrero
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2016

This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between ppDDE (r = -0.216) and -DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of ppDDT and ppDDE levels was observed, as well as the -DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of ppDDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of -DDT per week was obtained. HCB, -HCH and opDDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown.


PubMed | Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos and Autonomous University of Nuevo León
Type: | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2017

The synthesis of six ,,-unsaturated amides and six 2,4-disubstituted oxazolines derivatives and their evaluation against two Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (sensitive H37Rv and a resistant clinical isolate) is reported. 2,4-Disubstituted oxazolines (S)-3b,d,e were the most active in the sensitive strain with a MIC of 14.2, 13.6 and 10.8M, respectively, and the compounds (S)-3d,f were the most active against resistant strain with a MIC of 6.8 and 7.4M. The ex-vivo evaluation of hepatotoxicity on precision-cut rat liver slices was also tested for the ,-unsaturated amides (S)-2b and (S)-2d,f and for the oxazolines (S)-3b and (S)-3d,f at different concentrations (5, 15 and 30g/mL). The results indicate that these compounds possess promising antimycobacterial activity and at the same time are not hepatotoxic. These findings open the possibility for development of new drugs against tuberculosis.


Pfeiler E.,Research Center en Alimentacion y Desarrollo | Flores-Lopez C.A.,University of Maryland University College | Mada-Velez J.G.,Institute Seguridad Y Servicios Sociales Of Los Trabajadores Del Estado Of Sonora Isssteson | Escalante-Verdugo J.,Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica | And 2 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented. © 2013 Edward Pfeiler et al.


PubMed | Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica Del Estado Of Mexico, University of Veracruz, Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica and University of Sonora
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis is a public health problem across Mexico. This paper aims to select a panel, with a minimum number of repetitive elements (MIRU-VNTR) for genotypic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) clinical isolates.In this study, a full panel of 24 MIRU-VNTR loci was used to discriminate 65 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from three different geographical regions of Mexico. Those loci with the highest discriminatory power were subsequently selected.The panel, including five loci, was obtained by selecting the highest values of allelic diversity among the genotypes obtained. The dendrogram, generated by the panel MIRU-VNTR 5, showed a high discriminatory power with 65 unique genotype profiles and formed clusters according to the geographical region of origin.The panel MIRU-VNTR 5 can be useful for characterizing clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis in Mexico.


Lopez-Rocha E.,San Luis Potosí Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Lopez-Rocha E.,Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica | Juarez-Alvarez J.,San Luis Potosí Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Juarez-Alvarez J.,Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica | And 6 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: Although epidemiologic and socioeconomic criteria and biomedical risk factors indicate high-priority for tuberculosis (TB) control in Mexico, molecular epidemiology studies of the disease in the country are scarce. Methods. Complete sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from 248 of the 432 pulmonary TB (PTB) cases confirmed from 2006 to 2010 on the population under epidemiological surveillance in the state of San Luis Potosí, México. From most PTB cases with complete data Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates were recovered and their spoligotypes, lineages and families, geographic distribution and drug resistance determined. Results: Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence ranged from 2.4 to 33.4 (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) in the six state sanitary jurisdictions that were grouped in regions of low (jurisdictions I-II-III), intermediate (jurisdictions IV-V) and high incidence (jurisdiction VI) with 6.2, 17.3 and 33.4 rates, respectively. Most patients were poor, 50-years-median-age males and housewives. Among the 237 MTC spoligotyped isolates, 232 corresponded to M. tuberculosis (104 spoligotypes in 24 clusters) and five to M. bovis. The predominant Euro-American lineage was distributed all over the state, the East-Asian lineage (Beijing family) in the capital city, the Indo-Oceanic (Manila family) in eastern localities, and M. bovis in rural localities. Conclusions: In San Luis Potosí TB affects mainly poor male adults and is caused by M. tuberculosis and to a minor extent by M. bovis. There is great genotypic diversity among M. tuberculosis strains, the Euro-American lineage being much more prevalent than the Indo-Oceanic and East-Asian lineages. The frequency of resistant strains is relatively low and not associated to any particular lineage. © 2013 López-Rocha et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Alvarez-Rodriguez L.M.,University of Veracruz | Ramos-Ligonio A.,University of Veracruz | Rosales-Encina J.L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Martinez-Cazares M.T.,Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

Dengue is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Since all the four serotypes are actively circulating in Mexico, there is a need to develop an efficient diagnosis system to improve case management of the patients. There exist few studies evaluating the use of the NS3 protein as a protective antigen against dengue virus (DENV). In this paper we show the expression of a recombinant NS3 protein from all serotypes of dengue virus (GST-DVNS3-1-4) and report a reliable "in-house detection system" for the diagnosis of dengue infection which was field-tested in a small village (Tezonapa) in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. The fusion proteins were immunogenic, inducing antibodies to be able to recognize to antigens up to a 1: 3200 dilution. The purified proteins were used to develop an in-house detection system (ELISA) and were further tested with a panel of 239 serum samples. The in-house results were in excellent agreement with the commercial kits with =0.934±0.064 (95% CI = 0.808-1.061), and =0.872±0.048 (95% CI = 0.779-0.965) for IgM and IgG, respectively. The agreement between the NS1 antigen detection versus the rNS3 ELISA, =0.837±0.066 (95% CI = 0.708-0.966), was very good. Thus, these results demonstrate that recombinant NS3 proteins have potential in early diagnosis of dengue infections. © 2012 Laura Mónica Álvarez-Rodríguez et al.


Vazquez-Garciduenas M.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo | Romero-Perez N.L.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo | Figueroa-Aguilar G.A.,Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica | Jaime-Sanchez J.L.,Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica | Vazquez-Marrufo G.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: Gastroenteritis outbreaks in prisons represent a public health risk worldwide. Identifying and characterizing the etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks in prisons is important for implementing effective prevention and infection control measures. We present the first studied case of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Mexican prison. Methodology: Rectal swab samples were obtained from affected inmates. Standard microbiological techniques were used for isolating Salmonella enterica. Isolates were typed by PCR assays of DNA repetitive elements (ERIC, BOX, REP) and RAPD. Antibiotic resistance profiles were performed by the Kirby-Bauer method. Results: S. enterica serotype Oranienburg was responsible for the outbreak affecting 150 inmates. All patients presented diarrhea, and 70% of them also presented vomiting, with no fatal cases. The origin of the outbreak was undetermined due to the difficulty of gathering epidemiological information, but was likely the result of consumption of shrimp broth or a cantaloupe melon beverage. REP, BOX, and ERIC analyses of 26 serotype Oranienburg strains resulted in Simpson discrimination index (D) values of 0, 0.5507, and 0.5661, respectively. The D values from DG93-RAPD analyses and from the combined ERIC-BOX-DG93 markers were 0.7753 and 0.6092, respectively. All strains showed multiresistance to antibiotics. Conclusions: This is the only studied case of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Mexican prison, and of the first such outbreak caused by serotype Oranienburg. The combined ERIC, BOX, and RAPD markers adequately assessed the genotype diversity of analyzed strains. Penitentiary personnel or inmates involved in outbreaks might spread multiresistant strains outside of the facility. © 2014 Vázquez-Garcidueñas et al.


Bolado-Martinez E.,University of Sonora | Perez-Mendoza A.,University of Sonora | Alegria-Morquecho F.M.,University of Sonora | Candia-Plata M.C.,University of Sonora | And 2 more authors.
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2012

Objective: To perform the analysis of specific regions of the major genes associated with resistance to isoniazid or rifampin. Materials and methods: Twenty two M. tuberculosis strains, isolated from human samples obtained in Sonora, Mexico. Specific primers for hotspots of the rpoB, katG, inhA genes and the ahpC-oxyR intergenic region were used. The purified PCR products were sequenced. Results: Mutations in the promoter of inhA, the ahpC-oxyR region, and codon 315 of katG and in 451 or 456 codons of rpoB, were identified. Conclusions: Detection of mutations not previously reported requires further genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Sonora. © 2006 INSP.


PubMed | Laboratorio Estatal Of Salud Publica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista cubana de medicina tropical | Year: 2013

SD Dengue Duo (Standard Diagnosis) commercial kit is an immunochromatographic rapid test that detects NS1 protein and IgG/IgM dengue antibodies simultaneously.to evaluate the operational and functional characteristics of this system for the detection of virological and serological markers.sera panel was made up by 161 samples, 113 from patients with clinically and serologically confirmed dengue caused by any of the four dengue virus serotypes and 48 negative samples. All these samples were tested by SD Dengue Duo Kit and by Platelia Dengue NSI Ag, IgM Capture ELISA and ELISA Inhibition Method used as reference assays.the evaluated kit showed a 57.75% sensitivity for the detection of NS1 protein, false negatives were detected in samples collected 5 days or more after fever onset in secondary infection cases. IgM detection showed 96.0% sensitivity and 98.4% specificity. Furthermore, high agreement (95.7%) in classifying dengue infection types (primary or secondary infections) was observed. The global study of the 3 markers, the sensitivity rose to 100%.SD Dengue Duo is a simple, easy and rapid assay; it does not require additional equipment, can be used for acute and convalescence serum samples and offers a good alternative for dengue diagnosis in those laboratories where a complete dengue virus diagnosis is difficult to perform.

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