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Loizzo M.R.,University of Calabria | Nigro S.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico della Calabria | de Luca D.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico della Calabria | Menichini F.,University of Calabria | Menichini F.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico della Calabria
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

The natural occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and cis- and trans-resveratrols in red wines has been widely reported. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ochratoxin A (OTA) and both cis- and trans-resveratrol content of red wine (from must to wine) in a pilot-scale vinification process in Calabria (Italy). Eleven samples were collected at different stages of vinification and analysis was carried out by HPLC. Wine from manufacturer 3 contained the highest amount of trans-resveratrol (3.41 mg l -1). This wine was characterized by an Aglianico-Magliocco grape variety. Interestingly, data regarding OTA showed that the value of this contaminant was low in all analyzed samples and, in each case, below the legal limit (2.0 mg l -1 (ppb)). Overall, the results demonstrated the high quality of wines produced in Calabria. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Tundis R.,University of Calabria | Loizzo M.R.,University of Calabria | Menichini F.,Italian Medicines Agency | Bonesi M.,University of Calabria | And 3 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

In the present study the total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and capsaicinoids content, the in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of extracts of air-dried fruits from two Capsicum annuum cultivars were investigated. A different composition between the two cultivars was evidenced. C. annuum var. acuminatum medium extract presented a major content of phenols, carotenoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin while C. annuum var. acuminatum big extract is characterized by the highest quercetin, luteolin and kaempferol content with 68.0, 87.6 and 29.7μg/g dried weight, respectively, analyzed by HPLC. Medium pepper showed the highest radical scavenging activity in DPPH assay (IC 50 of 85.3μg/ml) while big pepper have an interesting activity in ABTS assay (IC 50 of 16.4μg/ml) and the highest inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation with an IC 50 value of 1.2μg/ml after 30min of incubation. A selective inhibitory activity against α-amylase was demonstrated for C. annuum var. acuminatum big lipophilic fraction (IC 50 values of 8.7μg/ml). The obtained results suggest that C. annuum cultivars could be used as valuable flavor with functional properties for foods. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Menichini F.,University of Calabria | Loizzo M.R.,University of Calabria | Bonesi M.,University of Calabria | Conforti F.,University of Calabria | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Since the past decade consumption of certain foods has been reported to have a positive effect on health. The object of the study was to determine for the first time the chemical composition and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic potential of Citrus medica L. cv Diamante flowers, leaves and fruits (endocarp and mesocarp) at two maturity stages. Flowers and leaves were characterized by the highest total phenols and flavonoids content. A declining trend was observed during maturity of fruits for both phenols and flavonoids. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test showed a strong activity for flowers and endocarp of mature fruits with IC 50 values of 2.8μg/mL and 3.5μg/mL, respectively, after 30min of incubation. Interestingly, the mature fruits endocarp (IC 50 value of 426.0μg/mL) could inhibit α-amylase with an IC 50 value 2-fold higher than immature fruits. None of the tested extracts affected the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts 142BR. The obtained results suggest a potential use of C. medica L. cv Diamante as new valuable Citrus species with functional properties for food or nutraceutical product on the basis of high content of phytochemicals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Aiello D.,University of Calabria | De Luca D.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico della Calabria | Gionfriddo E.,University of Calabria | Naccarato A.,University of Calabria | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

Quality and safety control and the validation of origin are hot issues in the production of food and its distribution, and are of primary concern to food and agriculture organization. Modern mass spectrometry (MS) provides unique, reliable and affordable methodologies to approach with a high degree of scientificity any problem which may be posed in this field. In this review the contribution of mass spectrometry to food analysis is presented aiming at providing clues on the fundamental role of the basic principles of gas-phase ion chemistry in applied research fields. Applications in proteomics, allergonomics, glycomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, food safety and traceability have been surveyed. The high level of specificity and sensitivity of the MS approach allows the characterization of food components and contaminants present at ultra-trace levels, providing a distinctive and safe validation of the products. © IM Publications LLP 2011. Source

Loizzo M.R.,University of Calabria | Tundis R.,University of Calabria | Bonesi M.,University of Calabria | Menichini F.,Italian Medicines Agency | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: The replacement of synthetic antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants fosters research on the screening of vegetables and food as sources of new antioxidants. Moreover, oxidative degeneration of cells is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. On the basis of these considerations this work aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties [by using the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays, and the β-carotene bleaching test] and the anti-cholinesterase activity of Citrus aurantifolia peel and leaves from different areas of growth. Results: Methanol extracts of the peel and leaves demonstrated the strongest radical scavenging activity. A similar trend was observed with the reducing ability, with values from 112.1 to 146.0 μmol L-1 Fe(II) g-1. The relationship between phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity was statistically investigated. Based on analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography, the most abundant flavonoids found in C. aurantifolia extracts were apigenin, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and nobiletin. n-Hexane fractions of both peel and leaves showed a good acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range 91.4-107.4 μg mL-1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as most common components. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest a potential use of C. aurantifolia peel and leaves for supplements for human health. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

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