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Migliorini M.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico | Cherubini C.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico | Cecchi L.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico | Zanoni B.,University of Florence
Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse

Extra virgin olive oil is a particularly complex product. Controlling the relevant production chain requires having a good Knowledge of both transformation phenomena occurring in its chemical component and, as a result, functional changes in oil. During oil storage and distribution both non-enzymatic oxidative degradation of triglycerides and hydrolytic degradation of secoiridoids prevail, leading to the formation of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this work was to follow the evolution during storage of secoiridoids and derivatives in different oil types, having different phenol contents and stored under different experimental conditions. During 2008, 2009, and 2010 oil crop seasons, olives tram Frantoio cultivar were processed in an oil mill working in low oxidative impact conditions. Oil produced during the 2008 and 2009 crop seasons was stored to simulate normal shelf-life conditions of products in a store. Oil produced during the 2010 crop season was stored under specific conditions to accelerate degradation reactions. Legal quality parameters and phenol compound content were measured on olive oil samples by HPLC according to the CGI method at both time zero and during storage. All the oil samples had a low acidity value and a similar oleic acid content. One out of three oil samples resulted to be different in bitter intensity and total phenol compound content. All the oil samples were subjected to low degradation, namely they showed a low parameter content, which was indicative of either oxidative degradation of triglycerides or hydralytic degradation of secoiridoids. During storage trials, all the oil samples were subjected to significant degradation both in absolute terms and in relation to storage time zero. Results showed the significance of compounds dialdehydic fonn of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (3,4 DHPEA-EDA) and hydroxytyrosol (3,4 DHPEA) as indicators of hydralytic degradation of phenol compounds, the former being inversely related to degradation, while the latter was directly related to degradation. Our research demonstrated a protective effect of phenol compounds on autoxidation of triglycerides. Source

Sofo A.,University of Basilicata | Scopa A.,University of Basilicata | Manfra M.,University of Basilicata | de Nisco M.,University of Naples Federico II | And 4 more authors.
Plant Growth Regulation

The aim of this research was to explain the direct plant growth-promoting activity of Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22 (T22), hypothesizing the involvement of different classes of plant growth regulators. Seven days after the transfer to root-inducing medium, in vitro-cultured shoots of GiSeLa6® (Prunus cerasus × P. canescens) were inoculated with T22. Root and shoot growth were significantly affected by T22 (+76 and +61%, respectively). Ten days after inoculation, the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), trans-zeatin riboside (t-ZR), dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR), gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The results showed that after T22-inoculation, IAA and GA3 significantly increased in both leaves (+49 and +71%, respectively) and roots (+40 and +143%, respectively) whereas t-ZR decreased (-51% in leaves and -37% in roots). Changes in DHZR were observed in T22-inoculated roots (-32%) but not in leaves, whereas the levels of ABA did not differ between the two treatments. The extraction method allowed the simultaneous extraction of phytohormones. There is evidence that the change in phytohormone levels is one of the direct mechanism by which T22 promotes rooting and shoot growth, with notable advantages for rootstock production during nursery processes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Migliorini M.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico | Cherubini C.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico | Mugelli M.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico | Gianni G.,Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae

In our previous work (Cherubini et al., 2009), sugar concentration was proposed as an accurate, reproducible index for technological ripening of olive oil fruits. During 2009 crop season, sugar and oil content of olive oil fruits from Moraiolo and Leccino cultivars were measured during ripening. The sugar content of olive oil fruits was determined both by titration and by using a portable refractometer. A linear relationship was found, which was similar to that identified for Frantoio cultivar in our previous work. Evaluation of °Brix using a refractometer was found to be linearly correlated to the sugar content of olive oil fruits. It was confirmed that sugar concentration may be considered as a direct index for peculiar biochemical phenomenon of oil accumulation during ripening of olive oil fruits. Evaluation of °Brix could thus be useful for a simple, fast determination of the sugar content and, indirectly, the relevant oil content. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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