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Sanchez A.,Laboratorio Central Of Veterinaria | Ryan P.G.,University of Cape Town | Majo N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gonzalez-Solis J.,University of Barcelona
Antarctic Science | Year: 2013

To evaluate the avian influenza virus (AIV) circulation in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic penguins we carried out a serosurvey on six species from Livingston, Marion and Gough islands. Seropositivity against AIV was performed on serum samples using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and haemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition assays. Some oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were also assayed to detect influenza virus genomes by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Overall, 12.1% (n = 140) penguins were seropositive to AIV. By species, we detected 5% (n = 19) and 11% (n = 18) seroprevalence in sub-Antarctic rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes spp.) from Gough and Marion islands, respectively, 42% (n = 33) seroprevalence in macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chysolophus Brandt), but no positives in the three other species, gentoo (Pygoscelis papua Forster; n = 25) and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica Forster; n = 16), from Livingston Island and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus Miller; n = 27) from Marion Island. While seropositivity reflected previous exposure to the AIV, the influenza genome was not detected. Our results indicate that AIV strains have circulated in penguin species in the sub-Antarctic region, but further studies are necessary to determine the precise role that such penguin species play in AIV epidemiology and if this circulation is species (or genus) specific. Copyright © Antarctic Science Ltd 2013.

Vazquez A.,Institute of Health Carlos III | Sanchez-Seco M.P.,Institute of Health Carlos III | Ruiz S.,Diputacion Provincial de Huelva | Molero F.,Institute of Health Carlos III | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

To ascertain the presence of West Nile virus (WNV), we sampled mosquitoes in 2006 in locations in southern Spain where humans had been infected. WNV genomic RNA was detected in 1 pool from unfed female Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this sequence cannot be assigned to previously described lineages of WNV.

Lopez G.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station | Jimenez-Clavero M.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria | Vazquez A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Soriguer R.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station | And 3 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that in Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas primarily affects birds and secondarily other vertebrates. WNV has caused frequent massive episodes of wild bird mortality during its expansion throughout the Americas, and has become a regulating factor in the population dynamics of many wild bird species. On the other hand, WNV-related mortalities in wild birds have rarely been reported in the Mediterranean Basin despite its well-documented circulation, and only sporadic outbreaks in horses have been documented. The causes underlying this contrasting epidemiological pattern have never been properly described. An initial suggestion is that Mediterranean and American strains possess different pathogenicities, whereas an alternative view proposes that WNV-related disease and mortalities may have been overlooked in Europe. To test these hypotheses, between 2004 and 2006 in southern Spain we sampled tissue from 119 wild bird carcasses to detect WNV and other flaviviruses, as well as blood from 227 wild birds arriving in wildlife rehabilitation centers to test for WNV seroprevalence. No flavivirus was found in the tissue samples. The prevalence of WNV-neutralizing antibodies was 2.2%, similar to that of 800 healthy birds of the same species that were captured in the field. Our results suggest that WNV circulation during the study period did not result in any detectable effects in terms of bird morbidity or mortality. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.

Perez-Boto D.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Garcia-Pena F.J.,Laboratorio Central Of Veterinaria | Abad-Moreno J.C.,COBB Espana | Echeita M.A.,Institute Salud Carlos III
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

The objectives of the study were to characterize and investigate the populations of Campylobacter jejuni in two grandparent broiler breeder farms over four years. Caecal as well as farm environmental samples were obtained. Campylobacter isolates were characterized by macrorestriction profile (SmaI and KpnI-PFGE) and PCR-RFLP of the flaA gene. Susceptibility tests against seven antimicrobials were also performed. Birds were negative for Campylobacter spp. when they came to these two production farms (20 weeks), and most of the flocks remained uncolonized until they were 23 weeks old. Eighteen genotypes were characterized, with one of them (genotype 2) appearing and persisting over the study period in the two farms. In general, the strains exhibited high genetic stability, and most of them could be seen as transient in the farms, being substituted by other strains when their flock was substituted. Only one environmental sampling was positive for C. jejuni. Two different genotypes were characterized; one of them was isolated from the birds of that farm two years before. The susceptibility data point to the idea of an environmental source or reservoir of this genotype. Regarding the susceptibility of the populations, as other studies have shown, quinolone resistance (alone or combined with other resistances) was the most frequent: 68.5%. Quinolone- and multidrug-resistant strains are a matter of concern in public health. In conclusion, this survey shows the complexity of the study of the colonization of farms by C. jejuni. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia-Bocanegra I.,Campus Universitarios Of Rabanales | Busquets N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Napp S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Alba A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

Flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex, including West Nile virus (WNV), are recognized as emerging and reemerging pathogens. Circulation of flaviviruses has been recently detected in different mosquito and vertebrate species in several European countries. A serosurvey study was carried out to evaluate the circulation of WNV and other flaviviruses of the JEV antigenic complex in different wild bird species in Spain between 2006 and 2009. Seropositiviy against JEV using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was found in common coot, Montagu's Harrier, black kite, black vulture, Bonelli's eagle, Spanish imperial eagle, Egyptian vulture, and Eurasian spoonbill. Seropositivity to JEV antigenic complex viruses was significantly higher in samples collected during autumn compared with animals sampled during summer. Significantly higher seroprevalence was also observed in 2007 compared with 2009, whereas there were no significant differences in seropositivity among taxonomic levels, migratory versus resident behavior, body size (large vs. medium), or habitats (free-ranging vs. captivity). Neutralizing antibodies against WNV were detected in common coot and Spanish imperial eagle using a virus-neutralization test. Oral shedding of WNV was not detected in any of the Spanish imperial eagles, Egyptian vultures, Eurasian Spoonbills, Lammergeiers, and the Black vultures analyzed by means of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results indicate that WNV and others flaviviruses of the JEV antigenic group circulated in migratory and resident wild bird species in Spain between 2007 and 2008. Further studies are necessary to determine the precise role that each of these wild bird species, some of them cataloged as "near threatened," "vulnerable," or "endangered," play in the epidemiology of those viruses. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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