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Cortez-Escalante J.J.,University of Brasilia | dos Santos A.M.,University of Brasilia | de Garnica G.C.,University of Brasilia | Sarmento A.L.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | And 2 more authors.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2012

We report the case of a 36-year-old man who had acquired immune deficiency syndrome and developed suppurative mediastinitis extending over the left lung and anterior thoracic wall around the sternum, pericardial effusions, splenomegaly, and mesenteric and periaortic lymphadenomegaly due to Mycobacterium avium (genotype I). The organism was isolated from an axillary lymph node and the bone marrow. Mediastinitis associated with disseminated M. avium complex infection is uncommon and, to the best of our knowledge, this manifestation has not reported before. Source

Basta P.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica | Marques M.,Secretaria de Estado de Saude | De Oliveira R.L.,Distrito Sanitario Especial Indigena Mato Grosso do Sul | Cunha E.A.T.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases and identify associated factors with abandoning treatment and death whilst undergoing treatment. METHODS: Epidemiological study based on cases of tuberculosis recorded in indigenous and non-indigenous individuals according to race/color in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwestern Brazil, between 2001 and 2009. Descriptive analysis of the cases was carried out according to the variables of sex, age group, residence, type of test used in the diagnosis, clinical form, supervised treatment and final status, according to race/color. Univariate/multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of abandoning treatment and death, using odds ratio as a measure of association. A time series of incidence according to race/color was constructed. RESULTS: In the period, 6,962 new cases of tuberculosis were registered, 15.6% being among indigenous. The illness was predominantly found in men and adults (20-44 years old) in all groups. Most of the indigenous patients lived in rural areas (79.8%) and 13.5% of the records in indigenous occurred in children aged < 10 years. The average incidence in the state was 34.5/100,000 inhabitants, being 209.0, 73.1, 52.7, 23.0 and 22.4 in indigenous, and those with yellow, black, white and brown skin, respectively. Patients aged 20 to 44 years (OR = 13.3, 95%CI 1.9;96.8), male (OR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.1;2.3) and of black race/color (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.0;6.3) were associated with abandoning treatment, while patients aged > 45 years (OR = 3.0, 95%CI 1.2;7.8) and with the mixed form (OR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.1;5.0) showed association with death. Although they only account for 3.0% of the population, the indigenous were responsible for 15.6% of cases recorded during the period. CONCLUSIONS: Major inequalities in the tuberculosis illness process were found between the categories studied. Incidence in the indigenous population was consistently higher than recorded in any other group, reaching more than six times the national average. It was among those with black and brown skin that the worst treatment results were observed, as they were twice as likely to abandon treatment as the indigenous. Poor program performance was strongly associated with abandoning treatment and death. It is thought that as long as there is no reduction in poverty inequalities in health indicators will remain. Source

Cordeiro M.T.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | Bertani G.R.,Federal University of Pernambuco | de Azevedo Marques E.T.,University of Pittsburgh
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2013

Dengue virulence and fitness are important factors that determine disease outcome. However, dengue virus (DENV) molecular biology and pathogenesis are not completely elucidated. New insights on those mechanisms have been facilitated by the development of reverse genetic systems in the past decades. Unfortunately, instability of flavivirus genomes cloned in Escherichia coli has been a major problem in these systems. Here, we describe the development of a complete reverse genetics system, based on the construction of an infectious clone and replicon for a low passage DENV-3 genotype III of a clinical isolate. Both constructs were assembled into a newly designed yeast-E. coli shuttle vector by homologous recombination technique and propagated in yeast to prevent any possible genome instability in E. coli. RNA transcripts derived from the infectious clone are infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells even after repeated passages of the plasmid in yeast. Transcript-derived DENV-3 exhibited growth kinetics, focus formation size comparable to original DENV-3 in mosquito C6/36 cell culture. In vitro characterisation of DENV-3 replicon confirmed its identity and ability to replicate transiently in BHK-21 cells. The reverse genetics system reported here is a valuable tool that will facilitate further molecular studies in DENV replication, virus attenuation and pathogenesis. Source

Guimaraes C.T.L.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | Coelho G.O.,Federal University of Tocantins
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2010

The genetic counseling has the purpose of guiding people through a conscientious and balanced decision making process regarding procreation, helping them to understand how the hereditary succession can contribute for the occurrence or risk of recurrence of genetic illnesses, as it is the case of the sickle cell anemia. This type of anemia is the most prevalence hereditary illness in Brazil and has clinical complications that can harm the development, the quality of life and lead to death. The present article has the objective to clarify the importance of the genetic counseling for the anemia carriers or falciform trace, aiming at to point out the main characteristics of this illness, its complications and how the diagnosis is made. The study was based on the bibliographical method, looking for studies that deal with this type of anemia and genetic counseling, relating them with guidelines and data from the Health Ministry. Based on the found data, we infer the importance of genetic counseling for the individuals who present the heterozygote form of sickle cell anemia - the falcemic trace - and highlight the need to implement precocious diagnostics programs and genetic and social/psychological orientation for those with the disease or falciform trace. Source

da Silva M.L.,Laboratorio Of Virologia | de Souza J.R.,Laboratorio Of Virologia | de Melo M.M.M.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2010

Introduction: Rotaviruses are considered important etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis and a common cause of the hospitalization of children aged zero to four years-old. In Brazil, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children is 12 to 42% and the distribution of infection is related to seasonality, which apparently occurs in different periods and intensity according to each region. The study investigated group A rotavirus in fecal samples of suspected children attended by the public health system of the State of Pernambuco. Methods: Diagnosis was achieved by ELISA and the Latex agglutination test. Results: Of the 171 samples studied, 33 (19.3%) presented positivity for Rotavirus A. Among positive samples, 72.7% belonged to male patients and 27.3% to female. Among the positive casuistic, 15.2% were vaccinated. When comparing the results obtained for the ELISA and Latex agglutination tests, 100% agreement between positivity by Latex agglutination and ELISA was verified. Conclusions: The high incidence of this infection reinforces the need to monitor this virus and define health policies concerning its diagnosis, prophylaxis, improvement in socioeconomic conditions and the refinement of the vaccine. Source

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