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Cordeiro M.T.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | Bertani G.R.,Federal University of Pernambuco | de Azevedo Marques E.T.,University of Pittsburgh
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2013

Dengue virulence and fitness are important factors that determine disease outcome. However, dengue virus (DENV) molecular biology and pathogenesis are not completely elucidated. New insights on those mechanisms have been facilitated by the development of reverse genetic systems in the past decades. Unfortunately, instability of flavivirus genomes cloned in Escherichia coli has been a major problem in these systems. Here, we describe the development of a complete reverse genetics system, based on the construction of an infectious clone and replicon for a low passage DENV-3 genotype III of a clinical isolate. Both constructs were assembled into a newly designed yeast-E. coli shuttle vector by homologous recombination technique and propagated in yeast to prevent any possible genome instability in E. coli. RNA transcripts derived from the infectious clone are infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells even after repeated passages of the plasmid in yeast. Transcript-derived DENV-3 exhibited growth kinetics, focus formation size comparable to original DENV-3 in mosquito C6/36 cell culture. In vitro characterisation of DENV-3 replicon confirmed its identity and ability to replicate transiently in BHK-21 cells. The reverse genetics system reported here is a valuable tool that will facilitate further molecular studies in DENV replication, virus attenuation and pathogenesis.


Cordeiro M.T.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | Martelli C.M.T.,Federal University of Goais | Martelli C.M.T.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Marques E.T.A.,University of Pittsburgh
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

This study investigated anti-dengue serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies in a random sample of dengue IgG-positive individuals identified in a survey performed in a hyperendemic setting in northeastern Brazil in 2005. Of 323 individuals, 174 (53·8%) had antibodies to dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1), 104 (32·2%) to DENV-2 and 301 (93·2%) to DENV-3. Monotypic infections by DENV-3 were the most frequent infection (35·6%). Of 109 individuals aged <15 years, 61·5% presented multitypic infections. The force of infection estimated by a catalytic model was 0·9%, 0·4% and 2·5% person-years for DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3, respectively. By the age of 5 years, about 70%, 30% and 40% of participants were immune to DENV-3, DENV-2 and DENV-1, respectively. The data suggest that infection with DENV-1,-2 and-3 is intense at early ages, demonstrating the need for research efforts to investigate dengue infection in representative population samples of Brazilian children during early infancy. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


Guimaraes C.T.L.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | Coelho G.O.,Federal University of Tocantins
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2010

The genetic counseling has the purpose of guiding people through a conscientious and balanced decision making process regarding procreation, helping them to understand how the hereditary succession can contribute for the occurrence or risk of recurrence of genetic illnesses, as it is the case of the sickle cell anemia. This type of anemia is the most prevalence hereditary illness in Brazil and has clinical complications that can harm the development, the quality of life and lead to death. The present article has the objective to clarify the importance of the genetic counseling for the anemia carriers or falciform trace, aiming at to point out the main characteristics of this illness, its complications and how the diagnosis is made. The study was based on the bibliographical method, looking for studies that deal with this type of anemia and genetic counseling, relating them with guidelines and data from the Health Ministry. Based on the found data, we infer the importance of genetic counseling for the individuals who present the heterozygote form of sickle cell anemia - the falcemic trace - and highlight the need to implement precocious diagnostics programs and genetic and social/psychological orientation for those with the disease or falciform trace.


PubMed | Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica, Faculdade Sao Lucas and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2015

Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin.The prevalence of T. gondii in 231 people, aged 1-85 years, who were living in four riverside communities along the Purus River, Lbrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The hearts and brains of 50 chickens, which were raised free-range in the communities, were pooled according to the community of origin and bioassayed in mice. The isolates were genotyped using polymorphisms at 12 nuclear markers (SAG1, 5 and 3-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3).The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 56.7% (131/231). IgG antibodies were presented by 117 (89.3%) and IgM by 14 (10.7%) of the 131 positive individuals. No association between age group and gender with prevalence was observed (chi-square test, p > 0.05); however, the comparison between localities showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly lower among the individuals living in the Boca do Ituxi (p < 0.05) community. Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained in the mouse bioassay, and genotyping revealed two complete genotypes that had not been described previously and three mixed isolates.These results support previous findings that T. gondii population genetics are highly diverse in Brazil and that T. gondii infection is active in these riverside communities.


PubMed | Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica and Federal University of Bahia
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] | Year: 2015

Antibiotic resistance has increased in recent years, raising the concern of public health authorities. We conducted a study of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from human and food samples to assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and to determine the genotype and clonal relationship of 84 E. coli isolates (48 from humans and 36 from foods). An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method. Virulence factors were evaluated by multiplex PCR, and the clonal relationship among the resistant isolates was studied by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Overall, 26%, 20.2%, 15.4% and 6% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and cephalotin, respectively. Twenty two percent of the isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. Multiple-drug resistance was mostly observed in the human isolates and involved the antibiotics ampicillin and tetracycline. None of the six virulence genes were identified among the isolates. Analysis of genetic diversity by PFGE of 31 resistant isolates, revealed 29 distinct restriction patterns. In conclusion, E. coli from humans and foods are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and are highly genetically diverse. In this setting, inappropriate use of antibiotics may be a cause of high resistance rate instead of clonal spread.


Basta P.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica | Marques M.,Secretaria de Estado de Saude | De Oliveira R.L.,Distrito Sanitario Especial Indigena Mato Grosso do Sul | Cunha E.A.T.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases and identify associated factors with abandoning treatment and death whilst undergoing treatment. METHODS: Epidemiological study based on cases of tuberculosis recorded in indigenous and non-indigenous individuals according to race/color in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwestern Brazil, between 2001 and 2009. Descriptive analysis of the cases was carried out according to the variables of sex, age group, residence, type of test used in the diagnosis, clinical form, supervised treatment and final status, according to race/color. Univariate/multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of abandoning treatment and death, using odds ratio as a measure of association. A time series of incidence according to race/color was constructed. RESULTS: In the period, 6,962 new cases of tuberculosis were registered, 15.6% being among indigenous. The illness was predominantly found in men and adults (20-44 years old) in all groups. Most of the indigenous patients lived in rural areas (79.8%) and 13.5% of the records in indigenous occurred in children aged < 10 years. The average incidence in the state was 34.5/100,000 inhabitants, being 209.0, 73.1, 52.7, 23.0 and 22.4 in indigenous, and those with yellow, black, white and brown skin, respectively. Patients aged 20 to 44 years (OR = 13.3, 95%CI 1.9;96.8), male (OR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.1;2.3) and of black race/color (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.0;6.3) were associated with abandoning treatment, while patients aged > 45 years (OR = 3.0, 95%CI 1.2;7.8) and with the mixed form (OR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.1;5.0) showed association with death. Although they only account for 3.0% of the population, the indigenous were responsible for 15.6% of cases recorded during the period. CONCLUSIONS: Major inequalities in the tuberculosis illness process were found between the categories studied. Incidence in the indigenous population was consistently higher than recorded in any other group, reaching more than six times the national average. It was among those with black and brown skin that the worst treatment results were observed, as they were twice as likely to abandon treatment as the indigenous. Poor program performance was strongly associated with abandoning treatment and death. It is thought that as long as there is no reduction in poverty inequalities in health indicators will remain.


Lorenz J.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Costa L.L.F.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | Suchara E.A.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Sant'Anna E.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Apple, strawberry and tomato are among the foods with higher contamination for pesticide use in Brazil. Thereby, a multivariate optimization of the QuEChERS method coupled to GC-ECD was proposed to investigate the level of pesticides residues clorpyrifos, dimethoate, malathion, mevinphos, pedimentalina, simazine and trifluralin in apple, strawberries and tomatoes produced in Santa Catarina state, South of Brazil. The process involved a two-level full factorial and Doehlert designs followed by validation of the modified method and its application in 91 real samples collected during the years 2010 and 2011. Modifications in the method provided increased detectability and satisfactory values of linearity, accuracy and precision. In real samples, residues of at least one pesticide (≥ LOQ) were found in 8 (27.6%) apple, 12 (40.0%) strawberry and 17 (53.1%) tomato samples. The results indicated the necessity of continuous monitoring for pesticide use in fruits and vegetables. ©2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.


Silva M.B.A.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | Silva M.B.A.,University of Pernambuco | Barreto A.V.M.S.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | da Silva H.A.,University of Pernambuco | And 4 more authors.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2012

Introduction: The present study shows a descriptive analysis of triatomine occurrence and its natural Trypanosoma infection rates in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2006 and 2007. Methods: Entomological data for the species, such as specimens captured in both intra and peridomiciles and natural infection index, were obtained via domiciliary capture in 147 municipalities from 11 Regional Managements of Health. The database was obtained from a sample of insects (100% infected and 20% non-infected) sent to the Central Laboratory of Pernambuco. Results: A total of 18,029 triatomines were analyzed from 138 municipalities of the state. Triatoma pseudomaculata (35%), Triatoma brasiliensis (34%), and Panstrongylus lutzi (25%) were the most captured species. These species also showed a widespread geographical distribution in the state. Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma petrocchiae, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma sordida, Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, and Triatoma infestans showed more limited geographical distribution and lower relative abundance. The parasitological research showed that 8.8% of the triatomines were naturally infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi and 91.3% of them were captured inside houses in 113 municipalities. P. lutzi showed the highest rates of natural infection. Conclusions: After the control of T. infestans, synanthropic species, such as T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, and P. lutzi, maintain the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in the state of Pernambuco. These species are widely distributed, and infected specimens have been found inside houses. Thus, an enhanced surveillance and vector control of Chagas disease is recommended in Pernambuco.


da Silva M.L.,Laboratorio Of Virologia | de Souza J.R.,Laboratorio Of Virologia | de Melo M.M.M.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2010

Introduction: Rotaviruses are considered important etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis and a common cause of the hospitalization of children aged zero to four years-old. In Brazil, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children is 12 to 42% and the distribution of infection is related to seasonality, which apparently occurs in different periods and intensity according to each region. The study investigated group A rotavirus in fecal samples of suspected children attended by the public health system of the State of Pernambuco. Methods: Diagnosis was achieved by ELISA and the Latex agglutination test. Results: Of the 171 samples studied, 33 (19.3%) presented positivity for Rotavirus A. Among positive samples, 72.7% belonged to male patients and 27.3% to female. Among the positive casuistic, 15.2% were vaccinated. When comparing the results obtained for the ELISA and Latex agglutination tests, 100% agreement between positivity by Latex agglutination and ELISA was verified. Conclusions: The high incidence of this infection reinforces the need to monitor this virus and define health policies concerning its diagnosis, prophylaxis, improvement in socioeconomic conditions and the refinement of the vaccine.


Cortez-Escalante J.J.,University of Brasilia | dos Santos A.M.,University of Brasilia | de Garnica G.C.,University of Brasilia | Sarmento A.L.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica | And 2 more authors.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2012

We report the case of a 36-year-old man who had acquired immune deficiency syndrome and developed suppurative mediastinitis extending over the left lung and anterior thoracic wall around the sternum, pericardial effusions, splenomegaly, and mesenteric and periaortic lymphadenomegaly due to Mycobacterium avium (genotype I). The organism was isolated from an axillary lymph node and the bone marrow. Mediastinitis associated with disseminated M. avium complex infection is uncommon and, to the best of our knowledge, this manifestation has not reported before.

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