Laboratorio Central Of Salud Publica

Asunción, Paraguay

Laboratorio Central Of Salud Publica

Asunción, Paraguay
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Baker K.S.,University of Liverpool | Baker K.S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Campos J.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas | Pichel M.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas | And 29 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2017

Objectives: Shigella sonnei is a globally important diarrhoeal pathogen tracked through the surveillance network PulseNet Latin America and Caribbean (PNLA&C), which participates in PulseNet International. PNLA&C laboratories use common molecular techniques to track pathogens causing foodborne illness. We aimed to demonstrate the possibility and advantages of transitioning to whole genome sequencing (WGS) for surveillance within existing networks across a continent where S. sonnei is endemic. Methods: We applied WGS to representative archive isolates of S. sonnei (n = 323) from laboratories in nine PNLA&C countries to generate a regional phylogenomic reference for S. sonnei and put this in the global context. We used this reference to contextualise 16 . S. sonnei from three Argentinian outbreaks, using locally generated sequence data. Assembled genome sequences were used to predict antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes and identify AMR determinants. Results: S. sonnei isolates clustered in five Latin American sublineages in the global phylogeny, with many (46%, 149 of 323) belonging to previously undescribed sublineages. Predicted multidrug resistance was common (77%, 249 of 323), and clinically relevant differences in AMR were found among sublineages. The regional overview showed that Argentinian outbreak isolates belonged to distinct sublineages and had different epidemiologic origins. Conclusions: Latin America contains novel genetic diversity of S. sonnei that is relevant on a global scale and commonly exhibits multidrug resistance. Retrospective passive surveillance with WGS has utility for informing treatment, identifying regionally epidemic sublineages and providing a framework for interpretation of prospective, locally sequenced outbreaks. © 2017.


Durand L.O.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cheng P..-Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Palekar R.,Pan American Health Organization | Clara W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 17 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2016

Background: Influenza-associated illness results in increased morbidity and mortality in the Americas. These effects can be mitigated with an appropriately chosen and timed influenza vaccination campaign. To provide guidance in choosing the most suitable vaccine formulation and timing of administration, it is necessary to understand the timing of influenza seasonal epidemics. Objectives: Our main objective was to determine whether influenza occurs in seasonal patterns in the American tropics and when these patterns occurred. Methods: Publicly available, monthly seasonal influenza data from the Pan American Health Organization and WHO, from countries in the American tropics, were obtained during 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 (excluding unseasonal pandemic activity during 2009-2010). For each country, we calculated the monthly proportion of samples that tested positive for influenza. We applied the monthly proportion data to a logistic regression model for each country. Results: We analyzed 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 influenza surveillance data from the American tropics and identified 13 (81%) of 16 countries with influenza epidemics that, on average, started during May and lasted 4 months. Conclusions: The majority of countries in the American tropics have seasonal epidemics that start in May. Officials in these countries should consider the impact of vaccinating persons during April with the Southern Hemisphere formulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Canteros C.E.,ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbran | Toranzo A.,ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbran | Ibarra-Camou B.,ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbran | David V.,Hospital Interzonal San Juan Bautista | And 23 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Microbiologia | Year: 2010

Clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis are rare in Argentina and are generally found in the large arid precordilleran area of the country. This study aims to perform a retrospective review of all coccidioidomycosis cases documented in the country from 1892 to 2009, and to describe those occurring in the last 4 years. One hundred and twenty eight cases were documented in the 117 year-period. Since the original description of the disease in 1892 until 1939, only 6 cases were registered; between 1940 and 1999, 59 (6-14/10 yrs) and the remaining 63 (49% of total cases) occurred in the last decade. The median age of 34 patients registered in 2006-2009 was 31 years (range: 7-89), male/female ratio was 1.3:1 and 12 patients were immunocompromised. Twenty-six cases were confirmed by direct microscopy and/or culture whereas the remaining ones by serology. All isolates were identified as Coccidioides posadasii. Thirty patients lived in a vast geographic region with epicenter in Catamarca Valley. Between 2006 and 2009, annual disease incidence rates in Catamarca Province increased from historical values below 0.5/100,000 to 2/100,000 inhabitants. Such increase suggests an emergency of coccidioidomycosis in that region.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, University of the Valley of Guatemala, Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos InDRE, University of the West Indies and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Influenza and other respiratory viruses | Year: 2016

Influenza-associated illness results in increased morbidity and mortality in the Americas. These effects can be mitigated with an appropriately chosen and timed influenza vaccination campaign. To provide guidance in choosing the most suitable vaccine formulation and timing of administration, it is necessary to understand the timing of influenza seasonal epidemics.Our main objective was to determine whether influenza occurs in seasonal patterns in the American tropics and when these patterns occurred.Publicly available, monthly seasonal influenza data from the Pan American Health Organization and WHO, from countries in the American tropics, were obtained during 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 (excluding unseasonal pandemic activity during 2009-2010). For each country, we calculated the monthly proportion of samples that tested positive for influenza. We applied the monthly proportion data to a logistic regression model for each country.We analyzed 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 influenza surveillance data from the American tropics and identified 13 (81%) of 16 countries with influenza epidemics that, on average, started during May and lasted 4 months.The majority of countries in the American tropics have seasonal epidemics that start in May. Officials in these countries should consider the impact of vaccinating persons during April with the Southern Hemisphere formulation.


de Mendonca M.C.L.,University Of Passo Fundo | de Amorim Ferreira A.M.,University Of Passo Fundo | dos Santos M.G.M.,University Of Passo Fundo | Oviedo E.C.,Laboratorio Central Of Salud Publica | And 5 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2011

Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.


Alfonso H.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Amarilla A.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Goncalves P.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Barros M.T.,University of Sao Paulo | And 12 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue virus comprises four antigenically related viruses named dengue virus type 1 to 4 (DENV1-4). DENV-3 was re-introduced into the Americas in 1994 causing outbreaks in Nicaragua and Panama. DENV-3 was introduced in Brazil in 2000 and then spread to most of the Brazilian States, reaching the neighboring country, Paraguay in 2002. In this study, we have analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of DENV-3 isolated in Brazil and Paraguay with viruses isolated worldwide. We have also analyzed the evolutionary divergence dynamics of DENV-3 viruses. Results: The entire open reading frame (ORF) of thirteen DENV-3 isolated in Brazil (n=9) and Paraguay (n=4) were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. DENV-3 grouped into three main genotypes (I, II and III). Several internal clades were found within each genotype that we called lineage and sub-lineage. Viruses included in this study belong to genotype III and grouped together with viruses isolated in the Americas within the lineage III. The Brazilian viruses were further segregated into two different sub-lineage, A and B, and the Paraguayan into the sub-lineage B. All three genotypes showed internal grouping. The nucleotide divergence was in average 6.7% for genotypes, 2.7% for lineages and 1.5% for sub-lineages. Phylogenetic trees constructed with any of the protein gene sequences showed the same segregation of the DENV-3 in three genotypes. Conclusion: Our results showed that two groups of DENV-3 genotypes III circulated in Brazil during 2002-2009, suggesting different events of introduction of the virus through different regions of the country. In Paraguay, only one group DENV-3 genotype III is circulating that is very closely related to the Brazilian viruses of sub-lineage B. Different degree of grouping can be observed for DENV-3 and each group showed a characteristic evolutionary divergence. Finally, we have observed that any protein gene sequence can be used to identify the virus genotype. © 2012 Alfonso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Campos J.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas | Pichel M.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas | Vaz T.M.I.,Instituto Adolfo Lutz | Tavechio A.T.,Instituto Adolfo Lutz | And 13 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

PulseNet Latin America and Caribbean Network (PulseNet LA and C) works together with PulseNet International sharing molecular epidemiologic information for the recognition and investigation of foodborne disease outbreaks. The participants of PulseNet LA and C perform standardized pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols and analysis generating data that is incorporated into Regional Databases. In this study we present the relationship and distribution of genetic subtypes of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium (STM), Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (SE), and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhi (ST) human isolates circulating in six countries of the Region between 2005 and 2009, from the analysis of the Salmonella Database. The 70 ST isolates analyzed were diverse and none of the countries shared the same PFGE profiles with XbaI enzyme. These results show a high genetic diversity among the strains studied and provide background to trace future outbreaks and travel related cases. In the analysis of 550 STM isolates, we found 10 patterns shared at least between two countries, suggesting the need of further studies of attribution to the source of origin. Only one of these PFGE patterns was associated with a known outbreak. Among 225 SE isolates, a predominant subtype was identified, that grouped 83.5% of the isolates and was associated with foodborne outbreaks in five of the six countries; showing the need to use other subtyping techniques for this serovar. The continuous update of PulseNet LA and C Salmonella Regional Database provides an important tool for the laboratory based surveillance of the serovars analyzed, for the prevention and control of foodborne outbreaks, and for the detection of emerging strains in the Region. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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