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Durand L.O.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cheng P..-Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Palekar R.,Pan American Health Organization | Clara W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 17 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2016

Background: Influenza-associated illness results in increased morbidity and mortality in the Americas. These effects can be mitigated with an appropriately chosen and timed influenza vaccination campaign. To provide guidance in choosing the most suitable vaccine formulation and timing of administration, it is necessary to understand the timing of influenza seasonal epidemics. Objectives: Our main objective was to determine whether influenza occurs in seasonal patterns in the American tropics and when these patterns occurred. Methods: Publicly available, monthly seasonal influenza data from the Pan American Health Organization and WHO, from countries in the American tropics, were obtained during 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 (excluding unseasonal pandemic activity during 2009-2010). For each country, we calculated the monthly proportion of samples that tested positive for influenza. We applied the monthly proportion data to a logistic regression model for each country. Results: We analyzed 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 influenza surveillance data from the American tropics and identified 13 (81%) of 16 countries with influenza epidemics that, on average, started during May and lasted 4 months. Conclusions: The majority of countries in the American tropics have seasonal epidemics that start in May. Officials in these countries should consider the impact of vaccinating persons during April with the Southern Hemisphere formulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Canteros C.E.,ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbran | Toranzo A.,ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbran | Ibarra-Camou B.,ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbran | David V.,Hospital Interzonal San Juan Bautista | And 23 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Microbiologia | Year: 2010

Clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis are rare in Argentina and are generally found in the large arid precordilleran area of the country. This study aims to perform a retrospective review of all coccidioidomycosis cases documented in the country from 1892 to 2009, and to describe those occurring in the last 4 years. One hundred and twenty eight cases were documented in the 117 year-period. Since the original description of the disease in 1892 until 1939, only 6 cases were registered; between 1940 and 1999, 59 (6-14/10 yrs) and the remaining 63 (49% of total cases) occurred in the last decade. The median age of 34 patients registered in 2006-2009 was 31 years (range: 7-89), male/female ratio was 1.3:1 and 12 patients were immunocompromised. Twenty-six cases were confirmed by direct microscopy and/or culture whereas the remaining ones by serology. All isolates were identified as Coccidioides posadasii. Thirty patients lived in a vast geographic region with epicenter in Catamarca Valley. Between 2006 and 2009, annual disease incidence rates in Catamarca Province increased from historical values below 0.5/100,000 to 2/100,000 inhabitants. Such increase suggests an emergency of coccidioidomycosis in that region.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, University of the Valley of Guatemala, Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos InDRE, University of the West Indies and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Influenza and other respiratory viruses | Year: 2016

Influenza-associated illness results in increased morbidity and mortality in the Americas. These effects can be mitigated with an appropriately chosen and timed influenza vaccination campaign. To provide guidance in choosing the most suitable vaccine formulation and timing of administration, it is necessary to understand the timing of influenza seasonal epidemics.Our main objective was to determine whether influenza occurs in seasonal patterns in the American tropics and when these patterns occurred.Publicly available, monthly seasonal influenza data from the Pan American Health Organization and WHO, from countries in the American tropics, were obtained during 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 (excluding unseasonal pandemic activity during 2009-2010). For each country, we calculated the monthly proportion of samples that tested positive for influenza. We applied the monthly proportion data to a logistic regression model for each country.We analyzed 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 influenza surveillance data from the American tropics and identified 13 (81%) of 16 countries with influenza epidemics that, on average, started during May and lasted 4 months.The majority of countries in the American tropics have seasonal epidemics that start in May. Officials in these countries should consider the impact of vaccinating persons during April with the Southern Hemisphere formulation.


de Mendonca M.C.L.,University Of Passo Fundo | de Amorim Ferreira A.M.,University Of Passo Fundo | dos Santos M.G.M.,University Of Passo Fundo | Oviedo E.C.,Laboratorio Central Of Salud Publica | And 5 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2011

Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.


Alfonso H.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Amarilla A.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Goncalves P.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Barros M.T.,University of Sao Paulo | And 12 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue virus comprises four antigenically related viruses named dengue virus type 1 to 4 (DENV1-4). DENV-3 was re-introduced into the Americas in 1994 causing outbreaks in Nicaragua and Panama. DENV-3 was introduced in Brazil in 2000 and then spread to most of the Brazilian States, reaching the neighboring country, Paraguay in 2002. In this study, we have analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of DENV-3 isolated in Brazil and Paraguay with viruses isolated worldwide. We have also analyzed the evolutionary divergence dynamics of DENV-3 viruses. Results: The entire open reading frame (ORF) of thirteen DENV-3 isolated in Brazil (n=9) and Paraguay (n=4) were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. DENV-3 grouped into three main genotypes (I, II and III). Several internal clades were found within each genotype that we called lineage and sub-lineage. Viruses included in this study belong to genotype III and grouped together with viruses isolated in the Americas within the lineage III. The Brazilian viruses were further segregated into two different sub-lineage, A and B, and the Paraguayan into the sub-lineage B. All three genotypes showed internal grouping. The nucleotide divergence was in average 6.7% for genotypes, 2.7% for lineages and 1.5% for sub-lineages. Phylogenetic trees constructed with any of the protein gene sequences showed the same segregation of the DENV-3 in three genotypes. Conclusion: Our results showed that two groups of DENV-3 genotypes III circulated in Brazil during 2002-2009, suggesting different events of introduction of the virus through different regions of the country. In Paraguay, only one group DENV-3 genotype III is circulating that is very closely related to the Brazilian viruses of sub-lineage B. Different degree of grouping can be observed for DENV-3 and each group showed a characteristic evolutionary divergence. Finally, we have observed that any protein gene sequence can be used to identify the virus genotype. © 2012 Alfonso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Campos J.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas | Pichel M.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas | Vaz T.M.I.,Instituto Adolfo Lutz | Tavechio A.T.,Instituto Adolfo Lutz | And 13 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

PulseNet Latin America and Caribbean Network (PulseNet LA and C) works together with PulseNet International sharing molecular epidemiologic information for the recognition and investigation of foodborne disease outbreaks. The participants of PulseNet LA and C perform standardized pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols and analysis generating data that is incorporated into Regional Databases. In this study we present the relationship and distribution of genetic subtypes of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium (STM), Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (SE), and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhi (ST) human isolates circulating in six countries of the Region between 2005 and 2009, from the analysis of the Salmonella Database. The 70 ST isolates analyzed were diverse and none of the countries shared the same PFGE profiles with XbaI enzyme. These results show a high genetic diversity among the strains studied and provide background to trace future outbreaks and travel related cases. In the analysis of 550 STM isolates, we found 10 patterns shared at least between two countries, suggesting the need of further studies of attribution to the source of origin. Only one of these PFGE patterns was associated with a known outbreak. Among 225 SE isolates, a predominant subtype was identified, that grouped 83.5% of the isolates and was associated with foodborne outbreaks in five of the six countries; showing the need to use other subtyping techniques for this serovar. The continuous update of PulseNet LA and C Salmonella Regional Database provides an important tool for the laboratory based surveillance of the serovars analyzed, for the prevention and control of foodborne outbreaks, and for the detection of emerging strains in the Region. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Weiler N.,Laboratorio Central Of Salud Publica | Leotta G.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Infecciosas | Leotta G.A.,CONICET | Zarate M.N.,Laboratorio Central Of Salud Publica | And 3 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Microbiologia | Year: 2011

During March 2007 there was an epidemic outbreak associated with the consumption of ultrapasteurized milk. Four hundred people were affected and 60 required hospitalization. S. aureus subspecies aureus was isolated from 5 patients, 3 operators and 3 milk samples. All strains produced enterotoxins. Strains isolated from 3 patients, one operator and all the milk samples carried the genes encoding enterotoxins C (sec) and D (sed), and showed an indistinguishable macrorestriction pattern (Smal-PFGE). Milk was identified as the source of intoxication and a production line operator as the source of contamination. This is the first foodborne outbreak reported in Paraguay whose agent was isolated, characterized and subtypified in the production plant, the food and the affected people.


Leotta G.,National University of La Plata | Suzuki K.,National University of La Plata | Alvarez F.L.,National University of Asunción | Nunez L.,National University of Asunción | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to (1) determine prevalence against Salmonella spp. and (2) investigate the risk factors with the positivity of the pathogens in backyard chickens in Paraguay. The field study was conducted between 31 March and 9 April 2009. A total of 50 smallholder farming households with chickens reared at backyards were initially selected from 25 of 52 administrative districts in San Lorenzo, Central Department, Paraguay. The required sample size of chickens was 400 in total. Data collection through questionnaire interviews about some selected poultry farming practices for each farm, together with cloacal swab sample collections for each chicken was implemented. The swab samples were examined microbiologically. Statistical analyses were used to describe the differences between the two chicken groups categorized according to positivity against Salmonella spp. The overall percentage of test-positive against Salmonella spp. was 3.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9%-5.7%]. The final logistic regression model indicated that free-range birds were more likely to have positivity against Salmonella spp., compared with caged birds (odds ratio: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-10.3). © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Copes J.,National University of La Plata | Leotta G.,National University of La Plata | Cardozo L.,National University of Asunción | Gimenez G.,National University of Asunción | And 7 more authors.
Research Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to (1) estimate frequencies of Salmonella enterica in growing pigs and (2) investigate farmers' perception and practices towards pig farming in Central Department, Paraguay. Twelve out of 19 districts in the department were selected and 33 farms with growers in the selected districts were recruited. Questionnaire interviews for each study farm, in combination with faecal sample collections (n = 30 per farm), which were microbiologic ally examined and visual inspection of pig production facilities were performed between March and November 2009. A questionnaire was designed to obtain basic information of a farm such as the number of pigs owned and some selected farming management practices. Faecal samples were used for Salmonella isolation, using buffered peptone water to have salmonellae pre-enriched, followed by xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar and brilliant green sulfapyridine agar. Suspect colonies were bio chemically tested by triple sugar iron agar in combination with lysine iron agar to confirm the identity. The true frequency probability and associated 95% Bayesian credible intervals (95% BCI) were computed via the Gibbs sampler, a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Overall, 18% (95% BCI: 8-31%) of the tested 1000 faecal samples were classified as positive for Salmonella enterica. All the study farms had at least one positive sample for Salmonella enterica (frequency range: 3-60%). Apparent prevalence at farm-level was therefore 100% (one-sided 97.5% confidence limit: 89%). Twenty-eight different serovars for Salmonella enterica were found. Based on increase the number of study districts, farms as well as animals in combination with improvement of sampling methods, possible spatial differences and risk factors/indicators should be clarified by further investigations.© 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Khan M.A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Northwood J.B.,Quotient Bioresearch Ltd | Loor R.G.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Tholen A.T.R.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Forty infection-associated VanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) strains obtained from five collaborating hospitals in Asunción, Paraguay were investigated. Genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing revealed the presence of 17 cluster types and four STs, with 93% (37/40) of isolates comprising ST type 78. Other ST types included ST-132, ST-210 and one new ST type (ST-438). All but one isolate (ST-438) were associated with clonal complex 17 (CC17), and 97% of the total isolates carried the esp gene. Three Tn. 1546 variants were found, including a new lineage containing an IS. Efa5 insertion in an existing IS1251 element. © 2009 The Authors. Journal Compilation.

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