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Idone A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Idone A.,Laboratorio Analisi Scientifiche | Gulmini M.,University of Turin | Henry A.-I.,Northwestern University | And 5 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2013

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ideal tool for analyzing dyes on historical textiles because it requires very little sample compared to other available analytical methods and analysis can be done directly on the fiber. This paper reports on the first systematic study of the use of citrate-reduced silver colloidal pastes for the direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis detection of dyes directly on wool, silk, cotton, and flax fibers. This type of study provides greater insight into the optimal conditions required for accurate analysis of dyes in historical samples. In this work, Ag colloidal pastes were characterized using localized surface plasmon resonance and scanning electron microscopy. The pastes were then employed for SERS analysis of twelve reference samples of different vegetal and animal fibers dyed with cochineal and eleven dyed with brazilwood. Furthermore, six historical textiles from an important collection of Mariano Fortuny (1871-1949) textiles at the Art Institute of Chicago were also examined, to test the efficacy of the paste on aged samples, and to shed light on Fortuny's fascinating production techniques. A mixture of cochineal and brazilwood was detected in some of the historical samples demonstrating, for the first time, simultaneous identification of these colorants used in combination. In addition, the findings give substance to the claim that Fortuny kept using natural dyes at a time when many new and attractive synthetic products became available. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Aceto M.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Idone A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Idone A.,Laboratorio Analisi Scientifiche | Agostino A.,University of Turin | And 4 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Purple codices are among the most relevant and prestigious book productions of Late Antique and Medieval age. They usually contained texts from Holy Writings written with golden or silver inks on parchment dyed in a purple hue. According to the tradition, the colour of parchment was obtained by the well renowned Tyrian purple dye. From the material point of view, however, very little is known about the compounds actually used in the manufacture of these manuscripts. Presently, the information available is limited to the ancient art treatises, with very few diagnostic evidences supporting them and, moreover, none confirming the presence of Tyrian purple. It is more than apparent, then, the need to have at disposal larger and more complete information at the concern, in order to verify what came to us from the literary tradition only. In this study, preliminary results are presented from non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex, the so-called Codex Brixianus, held in the Biblioteca Civica Queriniana at Brescia (Italy). Analyses were carried out with XRF spectrometry, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, molecular spectrofluorimetry and optical microscopy. The results suggest the hypothesis that Tyrian purple had been used as a minor component mixed with other less precious dyes such as folium or orchil. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Aceto M.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Arrais A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Marsano F.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Agostino A.,University of Turin | And 4 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2015

Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Aceto M.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Agostino A.,University of Turin | Fenoglio G.,University of Turin | Idone A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | And 6 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

The use of ultraviolet and visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry as a preliminary technique in the investigation of illuminated manuscripts is discussed. Because ancient manuscripts are amongst the most fragile and precious artworks, characterisation of the materials used in their decoration should be performed using non-invasive analytical methods. Ultraviolet and visible reflectance spectrophotometry with optical fibres (FORS) allows non-invasive identification of several colourants used by ancient illuminators, causing no damage or mechanical stress to the artworks subjected to analysis. Identification is usually based on the comparison of analytical data with a spectral database built from painted areas on parchment, created by preparing paints according to ancient recipes as described in medieval technical treatises. Such database and the spectral features of the colourants analysed are discussed, along with the benefits of extending the spectral range of analysis into the shortwave infrared (to 2500 nm). FORS can be best appreciated as a rapid preliminary tool that offers an overview on the main colourants employed and guides the selection of painted areas of manuscripts on which more selective techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence or Raman spectroscopy, can be employed for a more complete and accurate identification. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Favero-Longo S.E.,University of Turin | Sandrone S.,University of Turin | Matteucci E.,University of Turin | Appolonia L.,Laboratorio Analisi Scientifiche | Piervittori R.,University of Turin
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Fungal particulates are a dominant component of the bioaerosol, but aerobiological studies traditionally focused on a limited set of fungi having relevance as allergens or plant pathogens. This study first analyzes the occurrence of lichen meiospores in the mycoaerosol, quantitatively evaluating in the atmosphere of an alpine environment the occurrence of polar diblastic spores, unequivocally attributable to the lichen family Teloschistaceae. The analysis of air-samples collected one week per month for one year with a Hirst-type sampler displayed a low percentage occurrence of polar-diblastic spores (<. 0.1%) with respect to the whole mycoaerosol, dominated by Cladosporium. Spearman's correlation tests on aerobiological and climatic data highlighted a strong relationship between the detection of Teloschistaceae spores and rainfall events, excluding seasonal patterns or daily rhythms of dispersion. The fact that all the air-sampled spores were attributable to the species of Teloschistaceae occurring in the site, together with laboratory observations of predominant short range dispersal patterns for polar diblastic and other lichen spores, indicated that sexual reproduction is mostly involved in the local expansion of colonization, dispersal from a long distance appearing a less probable phenomenon. These findings indicated that responses of lichen communities to climate factors, usually related to physiological processes, also depend on their influence on meiospore dispersal dynamics. Spatial limitations in dispersal, however, have to be taken into account in evaluating lichen distributional shifts as indicators of environmental changes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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